Precise determination of all elements from atomic number19 in solutions. Direct solid sample analysis in case of suitable calibration samples or preparation of melt specimens from atomic number 11. Determination range: minor and main components. Semi-quantitative overview analysis for all elements from atomic number 11 in all matrices. Determination range: 0.01 - 100 %.
Image: principle of XRF
Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES)
Determination of all metallic elements, additionally B, P, S, Cl, Br, and J in solutions. All elements simultaneously by CCD detector; horizontal plasma >10000 lines/2.5 sec. Wave length range 125 - 770 nm. For semi metals, hydride generation is available. Determination range: 0.0001 % up to minor components.
Image: drawing of inductively coupled plasma
Atom Absorption Spectrometry
Flame-AAS: Determination of metallic elements in solution. Less suitable for W, Ta, Hf, Mo, Nb, Zr, Si, Al, Sn, Ba, Sr, rare earth metals and metals of the platinum group. Determination range 0.0001 % up to minor components.
ETA-AAS:Determination of metallic trace elements. Not suitable for carbide formers, rare earth and platinum metals. Determination range: 0.000001 up to 0.01 %.
Image: functional principle of AAS
Please note: For these determination methods, the samples must be dissolved into residue-free solutions by suitable decomposition methods. For this purpose in case of pure metal compounds, acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid) and acid mixtures of an appropriate concentration are being used. Decompositions in closed systems at temperatures up to 250 °C and duration of several hours (pressure decompositions), microwave aided decompositions at temperatures up to 280°C and melt decompositions with subsequent dissolution of the molten mass are being used for alloys with sparingly soluble additives and impurities (carbides and oxides) and for refractory ceramic materials (Al2O3, Si3N4, SiC, BN etc.).