Header logo is


2007


no image
Some observations on the masking effects of Mach bands

Curnow, T., Cowie, DA., Henning, GB., Hill, NJ.

Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 24(10):3233-3241, October 2007 (article)

Abstract
There are 8 cycle / deg ripples or oscillations in performance as a function of location near Mach bands in experiments measuring Mach bands’ masking effects on random polarity signal bars. The oscillations with increments are 180 degrees out of phase with those for decrements. The oscillations, much larger than the measurement error, appear to relate to the weighting function of the spatial-frequency-tuned channel detecting the broad- band signals. The ripples disappear with step maskers and become much smaller at durations below 25 ms, implying either that the site of masking has changed or that the weighting function and hence spatial-frequency tuning is slow to develop.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

2007


PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
MR-Based PET Attenuation Correction: Method and Validation

Hofmann, M., Steinke, F., Scheel, V., Brady, M., Schölkopf, B., Pichler, B.

Joint Molecular Imaging Conference, September 2007 (talk)

Abstract
PET/MR combines the high soft tissue contrast of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the functional information of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). For quantitative PET information, correction of tissue photon attenuation is mandatory. Usually in conventional PET, the attenuation map is obtained from a transmission scan, which uses a rotating source, or from the CT scan in case of combined PET/CT. In the case of a PET/MR scanner, there is insufficient space for the rotating source and ideally one would want to calculate the attenuation map from the MR image instead. Since MR images provide information about proton density of the different tissue types, it is not trivial to use this data for PET attenuation correction. We present a method for predicting the PET attenuation map from a given the MR image, using a combination of atlas-registration and recognition of local patterns. Using "leave one out cross validation" we show on a database of 16 MR-CT image pairs that our method reliably allows estimating the CT image from the MR image. Subsequently, as in PET/CT, the PET attenuation map can be predicted from the CT image. On an additional dataset of MR/CT/PET triplets we quantitatively validate that our approach allows PET quantification with an error that is smaller than what would be clinically significant. We demonstrate our approach on T1-weighted human brain scans. However, the presented methods are more general and current research focuses on applying the established methods to human whole body PET/MRI applications.

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


no image
Mining complex genotypic features for predicting HIV-1 drug resistance

Saigo, H., Uno, T., Tsuda, K.

Bioinformatics, 23(18):2455-2462, September 2007 (article)

Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolves in human body, and its exposure to a drug often causes mutations that enhance the resistance against the drug. To design an effective pharmacotherapy for an individual patient, it is important to accurately predict the drug resistance based on genotype data. Notably, the resistance is not just the simple sum of the effects of all mutations. Structural biological studies suggest that the association of mutations is crucial: Even if mutations A or B alone do not affect the resistance, a significant change might happen when the two mutations occur together. Linear regression methods cannot take the associations into account, while decision tree methods can reveal only limited associations. Kernel methods and neural networks implicitly use all possible associations for prediction, but cannot select salient associations explicitly. Our method, itemset boosting, performs linear regression in the complete space of power sets of mutations. It implements a forward feature selection procedure where, in each iteration, one mutation combination is found by an efficient branch-and-bound search. This method uses all possible combinations, and salient associations are explicitly shown. In experiments, our method worked particularly well for predicting the resistance of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Furthermore, it successfully recovered many mutation associations known in biological literature.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Bayesian methods for NMR structure determination

Habeck, M.

29th Annual Discussion Meeting: Magnetic Resonance in Biophysical Chemistry, September 2007 (talk)

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


no image
Real-Time Fetal Heart Monitoring in Biomagnetic Measurements Using Adaptive Real-Time ICA

Waldert, S., Bensch, M., Bogdan, M., Rosenstiel, W., Schölkopf, B., Lowery, C., Eswaran, H., Preissl, H.

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 54(10):1867-1874, September 2007 (article)

Abstract
Electrophysiological signals of the developing fetal brain and heart can be investigated by fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). During such investigations, the fetal heart activity and that of the mother should be monitored continuously to provide an important indication of current well-being. Due to physical constraints of an fMEG system, it is not possible to use clinically established heart monitors for this purpose. Considering this constraint, we developed a real-time heart monitoring system for biomagnetic measurements and showed its reliability and applicability in research and for clinical examinations. The developed system consists of real-time access to fMEG data, an algorithm based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and a graphical user interface (GUI). The algorithm extracts the current fetal and maternal heart signal from a noisy and artifact-contaminated data stream in real-time and is able to adapt automatically to continuously varying environmental parameters. This algorithm has been na med Adaptive Real-time ICA (ARICA) and is applicable to real-time artifact removal as well as to related blind signal separation problems.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Thinking Out Loud: Research and Development of Brain Computer Interfaces

Hill, NJ.

Invited keynote talk at the Max Planck Society‘s PhDNet Workshop., July 2007 (talk)

Abstract
My principal interest is in applying machine-learning methods to the development of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). This involves the classification of a user‘s intentions or mental states, or regression against some continuous intentional control signal, using brain signals obtained for example by EEG, ECoG or MEG. The long-term aim is to develop systems that a completely paralysed person (such as someone suffering from advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) could use to communicate. Such systems have the potential to improve the lives of many people who would be otherwise completely unable to communicate, but they are still very much in the research and development stages.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Feature Selection for Trouble Shooting in Complex Assembly Lines

Pfingsten, T., Herrmann, D., Schnitzler, T., Feustel, A., Schölkopf, B.

IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 4(3):465-469, July 2007 (article)

Abstract
The final properties of sophisticated products can be affected by many unapparent dependencies within the manufacturing process, and the products’ integrity can often only be checked in a final measurement. Troubleshooting can therefore be very tedious if not impossible in large assembly lines. In this paper we show that Feature Selection is an efficient tool for serial-grouped lines to reveal causes for irregularities in product attributes. We compare the performance of several methods for Feature Selection on real-world problems in mass-production of semiconductor devices. Note to Practitioners— We present a data based procedure to localize flaws in large production lines: using the results of final quality inspections and information about which machines processed which batches, we are able to identify machines which cause low yield.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Gene selection via the BAHSIC family of algorithms

Song, L., Bedo, J., Borgwardt, K., Gretton, A., Smola, A.

Bioinformatics, 23(13: ISMB/ECCB 2007 Conference Proceedings):i490-i498, July 2007 (article)

Abstract
Motivation: Identifying significant genes among thousands of sequences on a microarray is a central challenge for cancer research in bioinformatics. The ultimate goal is to detect the genes that are involved in disease outbreak and progression. A multitude of methods have been proposed for this task of feature selection, yet the selected gene lists differ greatly between different methods. To accomplish biologically meaningful gene selection from microarray data, we have to understand the theoretical connections and the differences between these methods. In this article, we define a kernel-based framework for feature selection based on the Hilbert–Schmidt independence criterion and backward elimination, called BAHSIC. We show that several well-known feature selectors are instances of BAHSIC, thereby clarifying their relationship. Furthermore, by choosing a different kernel, BAHSIC allows us to easily define novel feature selection algorithms. As a further advantage, feature selection via BAHSIC works directly on multiclass problems. Results: In a broad experimental evaluation, the members of the BAHSIC family reach high levels of accuracy and robustness when compared to other feature selection techniques. Experiments show that features selected with a linear kernel provide the best classification performance in general, but if strong non-linearities are present in the data then non-linear kernels can be more suitable.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Phenotyping of Chondrocytes In Vivo and In Vitro Using cDNA Array Technology

Zien, A., Gebhard, P., Fundel, K., Aigner, T.

Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 460, pages: 226-233, July 2007 (article)

Abstract
The cDNA array technology is a powerful tool to analyze a high number of genes in parallel. We investigated whether large-scale gene expression analysis allows clustering and identification of cellular phenotypes of chondrocytes in different in vivo and in vitro conditions. In 100% of cases, clustering analysis distinguished between in vivo and in vitro samples, suggesting fundamental differences in chondrocytes in situ and in vitro regardless of the culture conditions or disease status. It also allowed us to differentiate between healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage. The clustering also revealed the relative importance of the investigated culturing conditions (stimulation agent, stimulation time, bead/monolayer). We augmented the cluster analysis with a statistical search for genes showing differential expression. The identified genes provided hints to the molecular basis of the differences between the sample classes. Our approach shows the power of modern bioinformatic algorithms for understanding and class ifying chondrocytic phenotypes in vivo and in vitro. Although it does not generate new experimental data per se, it provides valuable information regarding the biology of chondrocytes and may provide tools for diagnosing and staging the osteoarthritic disease process.

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


no image
Common Sequence Polymorphisms Shaping Genetic Diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana

Clark, R., Schweikert, G., Toomajian, C., Ossowski, S., Zeller, G., Shinn, P., Warthmann, N., Hu, T., Fu, G., Hinds, D., Chen, H., Frazer, K., Huson, D., Schölkopf, B., Nordborg, M., Rätsch, G., Ecker, J., Weigel, D.

Science, 317(5836):338-342, July 2007 (article)

Abstract
The genomes of individuals from the same species vary in sequence as a result of different evolutionary processes. To examine the patterns of, and the forces shaping, sequence variation in Arabidopsis thaliana, we performed high-density array resequencing of 20 diverse strains (accessions). More than 1 million nonredundant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at moderate false discovery rates (FDRs), and ~4% of the genome was identified as being highly dissimilar or deleted relative to the reference genome sequence. Patterns of polymorphism are highly nonrandom among gene families, with genes mediating interaction with the biotic environment having exceptional polymorphism levels. At the chromosomal scale, regional variation in polymorphism was readily apparent. A scan for recent selective sweeps revealed several candidate regions, including a notable example in which almost all variation was removed in a 500-kilobase window. Analyzing the polymorphisms we describe in larger sets of accessions will enable a detailed understanding of forces shaping population-wide sequence variation in A. thaliana.

ei

PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


no image
Graph Laplacians and their Convergence on Random Neighborhood Graphs

Hein, M., Audibert, J., von Luxburg, U.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 8, pages: 1325-1370, June 2007 (article)

Abstract
Given a sample from a probability measure with support on a submanifold in Euclidean space one can construct a neighborhood graph which can be seen as an approximation of the submanifold. The graph Laplacian of such a graph is used in several machine learning methods like semi-supervised learning, dimensionality reduction and clustering. In this paper we determine the pointwise limit of three different graph Laplacians used in the literature as the sample size increases and the neighborhood size approaches zero. We show that for a uniform measure on the submanifold all graph Laplacians have the same limit up to constants. However in the case of a non-uniform measure on the submanifold only the so called random walk graph Laplacian converges to the weighted Laplace-Beltrami operator.

ei

PDF PDF [BibTex]

PDF PDF [BibTex]


no image
Dirichlet Process Mixtures of Factor Analysers

Görür, D., Rasmussen, C.

Fifth Workshop on Bayesian Inference in Stochastic Processes (BSP5), June 2007 (talk)

Abstract
Mixture of factor analysers (MFA) is a well-known model that combines the dimensionality reduction technique of Factor Analysis (FA) with mixture modeling. The key issue in MFA is deciding on the latent dimension and the number of mixture components to be used. The Bayesian treatment of MFA has been considered by Beal and Ghahramani (2000) using variational approximation and by Fokoué and Titterington (2003) using birth-and –death Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Here, we present the nonparametric MFA model utilizing a Dirichlet process (DP) prior on the component parameters (that is, the factor loading matrix and the mean vector of each component) and describe an MCMC scheme for inference. The clustering property of the DP provides automatic selection of the number of mixture components. The latent dimensionality of each component is inferred by automatic relevance determination (ARD). Identifying the action potentials of individual neurons from extracellular recordings, known as spike sorting, is a challenging clustering problem. We apply our model for clustering the waveforms recorded from the cortex of a macaque monkey.

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


no image
New BCI approaches: Selective Attention to Auditory and Tactile Stimulus Streams

Hill, N., Raths, C.

Invited talk at the PASCAL Workshop on Methods of Data Analysis in Computational Neuroscience and Brain Computer Interfaces, June 2007 (talk)

Abstract
When considering Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) development for patients in the most severely paralysed states, there is considerable motivation to move away from BCI systems based on either motor cortex activity, or on visual stimuli. Together these account for most of current BCI research. I present the results of our recent exploration of new auditory- and tactile-stimulus-driven BCIs. The talk includes a tutorial on the construction and interpretation of classifiers which extract spatio-temporal features from event-related potential data. The effects and implications of whitening are discussed, and preliminary results on the effectiveness of a low-rank constraint (Tomioka and Aihara 2007) are shown.

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


no image
Towards Motor Skill Learning in Robotics

Peters, J.

Interactive Robot Learning - RSS workshop, June 2007 (talk)

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


no image
Transductive Support Vector Machines for Structured Variables

Zien, A., Brefeld, U., Scheffer, T.

International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), June 2007 (talk)

Abstract
We study the problem of learning kernel machines transductively for structured output variables. Transductive learning can be reduced to combinatorial optimization problems over all possible labelings of the unlabeled data. In order to scale transductive learning to structured variables, we transform the corresponding non-convex, combinatorial, constrained optimization problems into continuous, unconstrained optimization problems. The discrete optimization parameters are eliminated and the resulting differentiable problems can be optimized efficiently. We study the effectiveness of the generalized TSVM on multiclass classification and label-sequence learning problems empirically.

ei

PDF PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF PDF Web [BibTex]


no image
Bayesian Reconstruction of the Density of States

Habeck, M.

Physical Review Letters, 98(20, 200601):1-4, May 2007 (article)

Abstract
A Bayesian framework is developed to reconstruct the density of states from multiple canonical simulations. The framework encompasses the histogram reweighting method of Ferrenberg and Swendsen. The new approach applies to nonparametric as well as parametric models and does not require simulation data to be discretized. It offers a means to assess the precision of the reconstructed density of states and of derived thermodynamic quantities.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
PALMA: mRNA to Genome Alignments using Large Margin Algorithms

Schulze, U., Hepp, B., Ong, C., Rätsch, G.

Bioinformatics, 23(15):1892-1900, May 2007 (article)

Abstract
Motivation: Despite many years of research on how to properly align sequences in the presence of sequencing errors, alternative splicing and micro-exons, the correct alignment of mRNA sequences to genomic DNA is still a challenging task. Results: We present a novel approach based on large margin learning that combines accurate plice site predictions with common sequence alignment techniques. By solving a convex optimization problem, our algorithm – called PALMA – tunes the parameters of the model such that true alignments score higher than other alignments. We study the accuracy of alignments of mRNAs containing artificially generated micro-exons to genomic DNA. In a carefully designed experiment, we show that our algorithm accurately identifies the intron boundaries as well as boundaries of the optimal local alignment. It outperforms all other methods: for 5702 artificially shortened EST sequences from C. elegans and human it correctly identifies the intron boundaries in all except two cases. The best other method is a recently proposed method called exalin which misaligns 37 of the sequences. Our method also demonstrates robustness to mutations, insertions and deletions, retaining accuracy even at high noise levels. Availability: Datasets for training, evaluation and testing, additional results and a stand-alone alignment tool implemented in C++ and python are available at http://www.fml.mpg.de/raetsch/projects/palma.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Impact of target-to-target interval on classification performance in the P300 speller

Martens, S., Hill, J., Farquhar, J., Schölkopf, B.

Scientific Meeting "Applied Neuroscience for Healthy Brain Function", May 2007 (talk)

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


no image
Training a Support Vector Machine in the Primal

Chapelle, O.

Neural Computation, 19(5):1155-1178, March 2007 (article)

Abstract
Most literature on Support Vector Machines (SVMs) concentrate on the dual optimization problem. In this paper, we would like to point out that the primal problem can also be solved efficiently, both for linear and non-linear SVMs, and that there is no reason for ignoring this possibilty. On the contrary, from the primal point of view new families of algorithms for large scale SVM training can be investigated.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Improving the Caenorhabditis elegans Genome Annotation Using Machine Learning

Rätsch, G., Sonnenburg, S., Srinivasan, J., Witte, H., Müller, K., Sommer, R., Schölkopf, B.

PLoS Computational Biology, 3(2, e20):0313-0322, February 2007 (article)

ei

PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


no image
Statistical Consistency of Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis

Fukumizu, K., Bach, F., Gretton, A.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 8, pages: 361-383, February 2007 (article)

Abstract
While kernel canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been applied in many contexts, the convergence of finite sample estimates of the associated functions to their population counterparts has not yet been established. This paper gives a mathematical proof of the statistical convergence of kernel CCA, providing a theoretical justification for the method. The proof uses covariance operators defined on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, and analyzes the convergence of their empirical estimates of finite rank to their population counterparts, which can have infinite rank. The result also gives a sufficient condition for convergence on the regularization coefficient involved in kernel CCA: this should decrease as n^{-1/3}, where n is the number of data.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
New Margin- and Evidence-Based Approaches for EEG Signal Classification

Hill, N., Farquhar, J.

Invited talk at the FaSor Jahressymposium, February 2007 (talk)

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Some observations on the pedestal effect

Henning, G., Wichmann, F.

Journal of Vision, 7(1:3):1-15, January 2007 (article)

Abstract
The pedestal or dipper effect is the large improvement in the detectability of a sinusoidal grating observed when it is added to a masking or pedestal grating of the same spatial frequency, orientation, and phase. We measured the pedestal effect in both broadband and notched noiseVnoise from which a 1.5-octave band centered on the signal frequency had been removed. Although the pedestal effect persists in broadband noise, it almost disappears in the notched noise. Furthermore, the pedestal effect is substantial when either high- or low-pass masking noise is used. We conclude that the pedestal effect in the absence of notched noise results principally from the use of information derived from channels with peak sensitivities at spatial frequencies different from that of the signal and the pedestal. We speculate that the spatial-frequency components of the notched noise above and below the spatial frequency of the signal and the pedestal prevent ‘‘off-frequency looking,’’ that is, prevent the use of information about changes in contrast carried in channels tuned to spatial frequencies that are very much different from that of the signal and the pedestal. Thus, the pedestal or dipper effect measured without notched noise appears not to be a characteristic of individual spatial-frequency-tuned channels.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Cue Combination and the Effect of Horizontal Disparity and Perspective on Stereoacuity

Zalevski, AM., Henning, GB., Hill, NJ.

Spatial Vision, 20(1):107-138, January 2007 (article)

Abstract
Relative depth judgments of vertical lines based on horizontal disparity deteriorate enormously when the lines form part of closed configurations (Westheimer, 1979). In studies showing this effect, perspective was not manipulated and thus produced inconsistency between horizontal disparity and perspective. We show that stereoacuity improves dramatically when perspective and horizontal disparity are made consistent. Observers appear to use unhelpful perspective cues in judging the relative depth of the vertical sides of rectangles in a way not incompatible with a form of cue weighting. However, 95% confidence intervals for the weights derived for cues usually exceed the a-priori [0-1] range.

ei

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]


no image
Mathematik der Wahrnehmung: Wendepunkte

Wichman, F., Ernst, MO.

Akademische Mitteilungen zw{\"o}lf: F{\"u}nf Sinne, pages: 32-37, 2007 (misc)

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]

2005


no image
Kernel Methods for Measuring Independence

Gretton, A., Herbrich, R., Smola, A., Bousquet, O., Schölkopf, B.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 6, pages: 2075-2129, December 2005 (article)

Abstract
We introduce two new functionals, the constrained covariance and the kernel mutual information, to measure the degree of independence of random variables. These quantities are both based on the covariance between functions of the random variables in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that when the RKHSs are universal, both functionals are zero if and only if the random variables are pairwise independent. We also show that the kernel mutual information is an upper bound near independence on the Parzen window estimate of the mutual information. Analogous results apply for two correlation-based dependence functionals introduced earlier: we show the kernel canonical correlation and the kernel generalised variance to be independence measures for universal kernels, and prove the latter to be an upper bound on the mutual information near independence. The performance of the kernel dependence functionals in measuring independence is verified in the context of independent component analysis.

ei

PDF PostScript PDF [BibTex]

2005


PDF PostScript PDF [BibTex]


no image
Some thoughts about Gaussian Processes

Chapelle, O.

NIPS Workshop on Open Problems in Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning, December 2005 (talk)

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


no image
A Unifying View of Sparse Approximate Gaussian Process Regression

Quinonero Candela, J., Rasmussen, C.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 6, pages: 1935-1959, December 2005 (article)

Abstract
We provide a new unifying view, including all existing proper probabilistic sparse approximations for Gaussian process regression. Our approach relies on expressing the effective prior which the methods are using. This allows new insights to be gained, and highlights the relationship between existing methods. It also allows for a clear theoretically justified ranking of the closeness of the known approximations to the corresponding full GPs. Finally we point directly to designs of new better sparse approximations, combining the best of the existing strategies, within attractive computational constraints.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Maximal Margin Classification for Metric Spaces

Hein, M., Bousquet, O., Schölkopf, B.

Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 71(3):333-359, October 2005 (article)

Abstract
In order to apply the maximum margin method in arbitrary metric spaces, we suggest to embed the metric space into a Banach or Hilbert space and to perform linear classification in this space. We propose several embeddings and recall that an isometric embedding in a Banach space is always possible while an isometric embedding in a Hilbert space is only possible for certain metric spaces. As a result, we obtain a general maximum margin classification algorithm for arbitrary metric spaces (whose solution is approximated by an algorithm of Graepel. Interestingly enough, the embedding approach, when applied to a metric which can be embedded into a Hilbert space, yields the SVM algorithm, which emphasizes the fact that its solution depends on the metric and not on the kernel. Furthermore we give upper bounds of the capacity of the function classes corresponding to both embeddings in terms of Rademacher averages. Finally we compare the capacities of these function classes directly.

ei

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]


no image
Selective integration of multiple biological data for supervised network inference

Kato, T., Tsuda, K., Asai, K.

Bioinformatics, 21(10):2488 , October 2005 (article)

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Assessing Approximate Inference for Binary Gaussian Process Classification

Kuss, M., Rasmussen, C.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 6, pages: 1679 , October 2005 (article)

Abstract
Gaussian process priors can be used to define flexible, probabilistic classification models. Unfortunately exact Bayesian inference is analytically intractable and various approximation techniques have been proposed. In this work we review and compare Laplace‘s method and Expectation Propagation for approximate Bayesian inference in the binary Gaussian process classification model. We present a comprehensive comparison of the approximations, their predictive performance and marginal likelihood estimates to results obtained by MCMC sampling. We explain theoretically and corroborate empirically the advantages of Expectation Propagation compared to Laplace‘s method.

ei

PDF PDF [BibTex]

PDF PDF [BibTex]


no image
Clustering on the Unit Hypersphere using von Mises-Fisher Distributions

Banerjee, A., Dhillon, I., Ghosh, J., Sra, S.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 6, pages: 1345-1382, September 2005 (article)

Abstract
Several large scale data mining applications, such as text categorization and gene expression analysis, involve high-dimensional data that is also inherently directional in nature. Often such data is L2 normalized so that it lies on the surface of a unit hypersphere. Popular models such as (mixtures of) multi-variate Gaussians are inadequate for characterizing such data. This paper proposes a generative mixture-model approach to clustering directional data based on the von Mises-Fisher (vMF) distribution, which arises naturally for data distributed on the unit hypersphere. In particular, we derive and analyze two variants of the Expectation Maximization (EM) framework for estimating the mean and concentration parameters of this mixture. Numerical estimation of the concentration parameters is non-trivial in high dimensions since it involves functional inversion of ratios of Bessel functions. We also formulate two clustering algorithms corresponding to the variants of EM that we derive. Our approach provides a theoretical basis for the use of cosine similarity that has been widely employed by the information retrieval community, and obtains the spherical kmeans algorithm (kmeans with cosine similarity) as a special case of both variants. Empirical results on clustering of high-dimensional text and gene-expression data based on a mixture of vMF distributions show that the ability to estimate the concentration parameter for each vMF component, which is not present in existing approaches, yields superior results, especially for difficult clustering tasks in high-dimensional spaces.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Support Vector Machines for 3D Shape Processing

Steinke, F., Schölkopf, B., Blanz, V.

Computer Graphics Forum, 24(3, EUROGRAPHICS 2005):285-294, September 2005 (article)

Abstract
We propose statistical learning methods for approximating implicit surfaces and computing dense 3D deformation fields. Our approach is based on Support Vector (SV) Machines, which are state of the art in machine learning. It is straightforward to implement and computationally competitive; its parameters can be automatically set using standard machine learning methods. The surface approximation is based on a modified Support Vector regression. We present applications to 3D head reconstruction, including automatic removal of outliers and hole filling. In a second step, we build on our SV representation to compute dense 3D deformation fields between two objects. The fields are computed using a generalized SVMachine enforcing correspondence between the previously learned implicit SV object representations, as well as correspondences between feature points if such points are available. We apply the method to the morphing of 3D heads and other objects.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Fast Protein Classification with Multiple Networks

Tsuda, K., Shin, H., Schölkopf, B.

Bioinformatics, 21(Suppl. 2):59-65, September 2005 (article)

Abstract
Support vector machines (SVM) have been successfully used to classify proteins into functional categories. Recently, to integrate multiple data sources, a semidefinite programming (SDP) based SVM method was introduced Lanckriet et al (2004). In SDP/SVM, multiple kernel matrices corresponding to each of data sources are combined with weights obtained by solving an SDP. However, when trying to apply SDP/SVM to large problems, the computational cost can become prohibitive, since both converting the data to a kernel matrix for the SVM and solving the SDP are time and memory demanding. Another application-specific drawback arises when some of the data sources are protein networks. A common method of converting the network to a kernel matrix is the diffusion kernel method, which has time complexity of O(n^3), and produces a dense matrix of size n x n. We propose an efficient method of protein classification using multiple protein networks. Available protein networks, such as a physical interaction network or a metabolic network, can be directly incorporated. Vectorial data can also be incorporated after conversion into a network by means of neighbor point connection. Similarly to the SDP/SVM method, the combination weights are obtained by convex optimization. Due to the sparsity of network edges, the computation time is nearly linear in the number of edges of the combined network. Additionally, the combination weights provide information useful for discarding noisy or irrelevant networks. Experiments on function prediction of 3588 yeast proteins show promising results: the computation time is enormously reduced, while the accuracy is still comparable to the SDP/SVM method.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Iterative Kernel Principal Component Analysis for Image Modeling

Kim, K., Franz, M., Schölkopf, B.

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 27(9):1351-1366, September 2005 (article)

Abstract
In recent years, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) has been suggested for various image processing tasks requiring an image model such as, e.g., denoising or compression. The original form of KPCA, however, can be only applied to strongly restricted image classes due to the limited number of training examples that can be processed. We therefore propose a new iterative method for performing KPCA, the Kernel Hebbian Algorithm which iteratively estimates the Kernel Principal Components with only linear order memory complexity. In our experiments, we compute models for complex image classes such as faces and natural images which require a large number of training examples. The resulting image models are tested in single-frame super-resolution and denoising applications. The KPCA model is not specifically tailored to these tasks; in fact, the same model can be used in super-resolution with variable input resolution, or denoising with unknown noise characteristics. In spite of this, both super-resolution a nd denoising performance are comparable to existing methods.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Phenotypic characterization of chondrosarcoma-derived cell lines

Schorle, C., Finger, F., Zien, A., Block, J., Gebhard, P., Aigner, T.

Cancer Letters, 226(2):143-154, August 2005 (article)

Abstract
Gene expression profiling of three chondrosarcoma derived cell lines (AD, SM, 105KC) showed an increased proliferative activity and a reduced expression of chondrocytic-typical matrix products compared to primary chondrocytes. The incapability to maintain an adequate matrix synthesis as well as a notable proliferative activity at the same time is comparable to neoplastic chondrosarcoma cells in vivo which cease largely cartilage matrix formation as soon as their proliferative activity increases. Thus, the investigated cell lines are of limited value as substitute of primary chondrocytes but might have a much higher potential to investigate the behavior of neoplastic chondrocytes, i.e. chondrosarcoma biology.

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


no image
Local Rademacher Complexities

Bartlett, P., Bousquet, O., Mendelson, S.

The Annals of Statistics, 33(4):1497-1537, August 2005 (article)

Abstract
We propose new bounds on the error of learning algorithms in terms of a data-dependent notion of complexity. The estimates we establish give optimal rates and are based on a local and empirical version of Rademacher averages, in the sense that the Rademacher averages are computed from the data, on a subset of functions with small empirical error. We present some applications to classification and prediction with convex function classes, and with kernel classes in particular.

ei

PDF PostScript Web [BibTex]

PDF PostScript Web [BibTex]


no image
Building Sparse Large Margin Classifiers

Wu, M., Schölkopf, B., BakIr, G.

The 22nd International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), August 2005 (talk)

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Learning from Labeled and Unlabeled Data on a Directed Graph

Zhou, D.

The 22nd International Conference on Machine Learning, August 2005 (talk)

Abstract
We propose a general framework for learning from labeled and unlabeled data on a directed graph in which the structure of the graph including the directionality of the edges is considered. The time complexity of the algorithm derived from this framework is nearly linear due to recently developed numerical techniques. In the absence of labeled instances, this framework can be utilized as a spectral clustering method for directed graphs, which generalizes the spectral clustering approach for undirected graphs. We have applied our framework to real-world web classification problems and obtained encouraging results.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Learning the Kernel with Hyperkernels

Ong, CS., Smola, A., Williamson, R.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 6, pages: 1043-1071, July 2005 (article)

Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of choosing a kernel suitable for estimation with a Support Vector Machine, hence further automating machine learning. This goal is achieved by defining a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space on the space of kernels itself. Such a formulation leads to a statistical estimation problem similar to the problem of minimizing a regularized risk functional. We state the equivalent representer theorem for the choice of kernels and present a semidefinite programming formulation of the resulting optimization problem. Several recipes for constructing hyperkernels are provided, as well as the details of common machine learning problems. Experimental results for classification, regression and novelty detection on UCI data show the feasibility of our approach.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


no image
Machine-Learning Approaches to BCI in Tübingen

Bensch, M., Bogdan, M., Hill, N., Lal, T., Rosenstiel, W., Schölkopf, B., Schröder, M.

Brain-Computer Interface Technology, June 2005, Talk given by NJH. (talk)

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


no image
Image Reconstruction by Linear Programming

Tsuda, K., Rätsch, G.

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 14(6):737-744, June 2005 (article)

Abstract
One way of image denoising is to project a noisy image to the subspace of admissible images derived, for instance, by PCA. However, a major drawback of this method is that all pixels are updated by the projection, even when only a few pixels are corrupted by noise or occlusion. We propose a new method to identify the noisy pixels by l1-norm penalization and to update the identified pixels only. The identification and updating of noisy pixels are formulated as one linear program which can be efficiently solved. In particular, one can apply the upsilon trick to directly specify the fraction of pixels to be reconstructed. Moreover, we extend the linear program to be able to exploit prior knowledge that occlusions often appear in contiguous blocks (e.g., sunglasses on faces). The basic idea is to penalize boundary points and interior points of the occluded area differently. We are also able to show the upsilon property for this extended LP leading to a method which is easy to use. Experimental results demonstrate the power of our approach.

ei

PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


no image
RASE: recognition of alternatively spliced exons in C.elegans

Rätsch, G., Sonnenburg, S., Schölkopf, B.

Bioinformatics, 21(Suppl. 1):i369-i377, June 2005 (article)

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


no image
Matrix Exponentiated Gradient Updates for On-line Learning and Bregman Projection

Tsuda, K., Rätsch, G., Warmuth, M.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 6, pages: 995-1018, June 2005 (article)

Abstract
We address the problem of learning a symmetric positive definite matrix. The central issue is to design parameter updates that preserve positive definiteness. Our updates are motivated with the von Neumann divergence. Rather than treating the most general case, we focus on two key applications that exemplify our methods: on-line learning with a simple square loss, and finding a symmetric positive definite matrix subject to linear constraints. The updates generalize the exponentiated gradient (EG) update and AdaBoost, respectively: the parameter is now a symmetric positive definite matrix of trace one instead of a probability vector (which in this context is a diagonal positive definite matrix with trace one). The generalized updates use matrix logarithms and exponentials to preserve positive definiteness. Most importantly, we show how the derivation and the analyses of the original EG update and AdaBoost generalize to the non-diagonal case. We apply the resulting matrix exponentiated gradient (MEG) update and DefiniteBoost to the problem of learning a kernel matrix from distance measurements.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]