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2006


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Model-based Design Analysis and Yield Optimization

Pfingsten, T., Herrmann, D., Rasmussen, C.

IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, 19(4):475-486, February 2006 (article)

Abstract
Fluctuations are inherent to any fabrication process. Integrated circuits and micro-electro-mechanical systems are particularly affected by these variations, and due to high quality requirements the effect on the devices’ performance has to be understood quantitatively. In recent years it has become possible to model the performance of such complex systems on the basis of design specifications, and model-based Sensitivity Analysis has made its way into industrial engineering. We show how an efficient Bayesian approach, using a Gaussian process prior, can replace the commonly used brute-force Monte Carlo scheme, making it possible to apply the analysis to computationally costly models. We introduce a number of global, statistically justified sensitivity measures for design analysis and optimization. Two models of integrated systems serve us as case studies to introduce the analysis and to assess its convergence properties. We show that the Bayesian Monte Carlo scheme can save costly simulation runs and can ensure a reliable accuracy of the analysis.

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PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

2006


PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Weighting of experimental evidence in macromolecular structure determination

Habeck, M., Rieping, W., Nilges, M.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(6):1756-1761, February 2006 (article)

Abstract
The determination of macromolecular structures requires weighting of experimental evidence relative to prior physical information. Although it can critically affect the quality of the calculated structures, experimental data are routinely weighted on an empirical basis. At present, cross-validation is the most rigorous method to determine the best weight. We describe a general method to adaptively weight experimental data in the course of structure calculation. It is further shown that the necessity to define weights for the data can be completely alleviated. We demonstrate the method on a structure calculation from NMR data and find that the resulting structures are optimal in terms of accuracy and structural quality. Our method is devoid of the bias imposed by an empirical choice of the weight and has some advantages over estimating the weight by cross-validation.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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Classification of Faces in Man and Machine

Graf, A., Wichmann, F., Bülthoff, H., Schölkopf, B.

Neural Computation, 18(1):143-165, January 2006 (article)

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PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


Chiral molecules split light: Reflection and refraction in a chiral liquid
Chiral molecules split light: Reflection and refraction in a chiral liquid

Ghosh, A., Fischer, P.

PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 97(17), 2006, Featured highlight ‘Fundamental optical physics: Refraction’ Nature Photonics, Nov. 2006. (article)

Abstract
A light beam changes direction as it enters a liquid at an angle from another medium, such as air. Should the liquid contain molecules that lack mirror symmetry, then it has been predicted by Fresnel that the light beam will not only change direction, but will actually split into two separate beams with a small difference in the respective angles of refraction. Here we report the observation of this phenomenon. We also demonstrate that the angle of reflection does not equal the angle of incidence in a chiral medium. Unlike conventional optical rotation, which depends on the path-length through the sample, the reported reflection and refraction phenomena arise within a few wavelengths at the interface and thereby suggest a new approach to polarimetry that can be used in microfluidic volumes.

Featured highlight ‘Fundamental optical physics: Refraction’ Nature Photonics, Nov. 2006.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Direct chiral discrimination in NMR spectroscopy
Direct chiral discrimination in NMR spectroscopy

Buckingham, A., Fischer, P.

CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 324(1):111-116, 2006 (article)

Abstract
Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is unable to distinguish between the two mirror-image forms (enantiomers) of a chiral molecule. This is because the NMR spectrum is determined by the chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants which - in the absence of a chiral solvent - are identical for the two enantiomers. We discuss how chirality may nevertheless be directly detected in liquid-state NMR spectroscopy: In a chiral molecule, the rotating nuclear magnetic moment induces an electric dipole moment in the direction perpendicular to itself and to the permanent magnetic field of the spectrometer. We present computations of the precessing electric polarization following a pi/2 pulse. Our estimates indicate that the electric polarization should be detectable in favourable cases. We also predict that application of an electrostatic field induces a chirally sensitive magnetization oscillating in the direction of the permanent magnetic field. We show that the electric-field-perturbed chemical shift tensor, the nuclear magnetic shielding polarizability, underlies these chiral NMR effects. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Ring-resonator-based frequency-domain optical activity measurements of a chiral liquid
Ring-resonator-based frequency-domain optical activity measurements of a chiral liquid

Vollmer, F., Fischer, P.

OPTICS LETTERS, 31(4):453-455, 2006 (article)

Abstract
Chiral liquids rotate the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light and are therefore optically active. Here we show that optical rotation can be observed in the frequency domain. A chiral liquid introduced in a fiber-loop ring resonator that supports left and right circularly polarized modes gives rise to relative frequency shifts that are a direct measure of the liquid's circular birefringence and hence of its optical activity. The effect is in principle not diminished if the circumference of the ring is reduced. The technique is similarly applicable to refractive index and linear birefringence measurements. (c) 2006 Optical Society of America.

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DOI [BibTex]


Sign of the refractive index in a gain medium with negative permittivity and permeability
Sign of the refractive index in a gain medium with negative permittivity and permeability

Chen, Y., Fischer, P., Wise, F.

JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA B-OPTICAL PHYSICS, 23(1):45-50, 2006 (article)

Abstract
We show how the sign of the refractive index in any medium may be derived using a rigorous analysis based on Einstein causality. In particular, we consider left-handed materials, i.e., media that have negative permittivities and permeabilities at the frequency of interest. We find that the consideration of gain in such media can give rise to a positive refractive index. (c) 2006 Optical Society of America.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]