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2016


Thumb xl inflateble robots
Inflated soft actuators with reversible stable deformations

Hines, L., Petersen, K., Sitti, M.

Advanced Materials, 28(19):3690-3696, March 2016 (article)

Abstract
Most soft robotic systems are currently dependent on bulky compressors or pumps. A soft actuation method is presented combining hyperelastic membranes and dielectric elastomer actuators to switch between stable deformations of sealed chambers. This method is capable of large repeatable deformations, and has a number of stable states proportional to the number of actuatable membranes in the chamber.

pi

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

2016



Thumb xl publications toc
Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers

Zhuang, J., Sitti, M.

Scientific reports, 6, pages: 32135, Nature Publishing Group, March 2016 (article)

Abstract
In this study, in a bio-hybrid microswimmer system driven by multiple Serratia marcescens bacteria, we quantify the chemotactic drift of a large number of microswimmers towards L-serine and elucidate the associated collective chemotaxis behavior by statistical analysis of over a thousand swimming trajectories of the microswimmers. The results show that the microswimmers have a strong heading preference for moving up the L-serine gradient, while their speed does not change considerably when moving up and down the gradient; therefore, the heading bias constitutes the major factor that produces the chemotactic drift. The heading direction of a microswimmer is found to be significantly more persistent when it moves up the L-serine gradient than when it travels down the gradient; this effect causes the apparent heading preference of the microswimmers and is the crucial reason that enables the seemingly cooperative chemotaxis of multiple bacteria on a microswimmer. In addition, we find that their chemotactic drift velocity increases superquadratically with their mean swimming speed, suggesting that chemotaxis of bio-hybrid microsystems can be enhanced by designing and building faster microswimmers. Such bio-hybrid microswimmers with chemotactic steering capability may find future applications in targeted drug delivery, bioengineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices.

pi

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


Thumb xl publications toc
Targeted drug delivery and imaging using mobile milli/microrobots: A promising future towards theranostic pharmaceutical design

Vikram Singh, A., Sitti, M.

Current Pharmaceutical Design, 22(11):1418-1428, Bentham Science Publishers, March 2016 (article)

Abstract
Miniature untethered medical robots have been receiving growing attention due to technological advances in microactuation, microsensors, and microfabrication and have significant potential to reduce the invasiveness and improve the accessibility of medical devices into unprecedented small spaces inside the human body. In this review, we discuss therapeutic and diagnostic applications of untethered medical microrobots. Wirelessly controlled milli/microrobots with integrated sensors are revolutionizing micromanipulation based medical interventions and are enabling doctors to perform minimally invasive procedures not possible before. 3D fabrication technologies enabling milli/microrobot fabrication at the single cell scale are empowering high-resolution visual imaging and in vivo manipulation capabilities. Swallowable millirobots and injectabale ocular microrobots allow the gastric ulcer imaging, and performance of vitreoretinal microsurgery at previously inaccessible ocular sites. Many invasive excision and incision based diagnostic biopsy, prostrate, and nephrolgical procedures can be performed minimally or almost noninvasively due to recent advancements in microrobotic technology. Advances in biohybrid microrobot systems are pushing microrobotic systems even smaller, using biological cells as on-board microactuators and microsensors using the chemical energy. Such microrobotic systems could be used for local targeted delivery of imaging contrast agents, drugs, genes, and mRNA, minimally invasive surgery, and cell micromanipulation in the near future.

pi

link (url) [BibTex]


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Dispersion and shape engineered plasmonic nanosensors

Jeong, H. H., Mark, A. G., Alarcon-Correa, M., Kim, I., Oswald, P., Lee, T. C., Fischer, P.

Nature Communications, 7, pages: 11331, March 2016 (article)

Abstract
Biosensors based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of individual metallic nanoparticles promise to deliver modular, low-cost sensing with high-detection thresholds. However, they continue to suffer from relatively low sensitivity and figures of merit (FOMs). Herein we introduce the idea of sensitivity enhancement of LSPR sensors through engineering of the material dispersion function. Employing dispersion and shape engineering of chiral nanoparticles leads to remarkable refractive index sensitivities (1,091 nmRIU(-1) at lambda = 921 nm) and FOMs (>2,800 RIU-1). A key feature is that the polarization-dependent extinction of the nanoparticles is now characterized by rich spectral features, including bipolar peaks and nulls, suitable for tracking refractive index changes. This sensing modality offers strong optical contrast even in the presence of highly absorbing media, an important consideration for use in complex biological media with limited transmission. The technique is sensitive to surface-specific binding events which we demonstrate through biotin-avidin surface coupling.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl publications toc
Parallel microcracks-based ultrasensitive and highly stretchable strain sensors

Amjadi, M., Turan, M., Clementson, C. P., Sitti, M.

ACS Applied Materials \& Interfaces, 8(8):5618-5626, American Chemical Society, Febuary 2016 (article)

Abstract
There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11 344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics.

pi

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl amjadi et al 2016 advanced functional materials
Stretchable, Skin-Mountable, and Wearable Strain Sensors and Their Potential Applications: A Review

Amjadi, M., Kyung, K., Park, I., Sitti, M.

Advanced Functional Materials, 26, pages: 1678-1698, Febuary 2016 (article)

Abstract
There is a growing demand for flexible and soft electronic devices. In particular, stretchable, skin-mountable, and wearable strain sensors are needed for several potential applications including personalized health-monitoring, human motion detection, human-machine interfaces, soft robotics, and so forth. This Feature Article presents recent advancements in the development of flexible and stretchable strain sensors. The article shows that highly stretchable strain sensors are successfully being developed by new mechanisms such as disconnection between overlapped nanomaterials, crack propagation in thin films, and tunneling effect, different from traditional strain sensing mechanisms. Strain sensing performances of recently reported strain sensors are comprehensively studied and discussed, showing that appropriate choice of composite structures as well as suitable interaction between functional nanomaterials and polymers are essential for the high performance strain sensing. Next, simulation results of piezoresistivity of stretchable strain sensors by computational models are reported. Finally, potential applications of flexible strain sensors are described. This survey reveals that flexible, skin-mountable, and wearable strain sensors have potential in diverse applications while several grand challenges have to be still overcome.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl b 07384529
Size optimization of a magnetic system for drug delivery with capsule robots

Munoz, F., Alici, G., Li, W., Sitti, M.

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 52(5):1-11, IEEE, January 2016 (article)

Abstract
In this paper, we present a methodology for the size optimization of an external magnetic system made of arc-shaped permanent magnets (ASMs). This magnetic system is able to remotely actuate a drug-release module embedded in a prototype of a capsule robot. The optimization of the magnetic system is carried out by using an accurate analytical model that is valid for any arbitrary dimensions of the ASMs. By using this analytical model, we perform parametric studies and conduct a statistical analysis [analysis of variance (ANOVA)] to investigate efficient ways to distribute the volume of the ASMs so that the dimensions and volume of the magnetic system are minimized while optimal flux densities and magnetic torques are obtained to actuate the drug delivery system (DDS). The ANOVA results, at 5% significance level, indicate that changes in the angular width followed by changes in the length of the ASMs have the highest impact on the magnetic linkage. Furthermore, our experimental results, which are in agreement with the analytical results, show that the size optimization of the magnetic system is effective for the actuation of the DDS in capsule robots.

pi

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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On estimation of functional causal models: General results and application to post-nonlinear causal model

Zhang, K., Wang, Z., Zhang, J., Schölkopf, B.

ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technologies, 7(2):article no. 13, January 2016 (article)

ei

PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl toc image
Magnetic Propulsion of Microswimmers with DNA-Based Flagellar Bundles

Maier, A. M., Weig, C., Oswald, P., Frey, E., Fischer, P., Liedl, T.

Nano Letters, 16(2):906-910, January 2016 (article)

Abstract
We show that DNA-based self-assembly can serve as a general and flexible tool to construct artificial flagella of several micrometers in length and only tens of nanometers in diameter. By attaching the DNA flagella to biocompatible magnetic microparticles, we provide a proof of concept demonstration of hybrid structures that, when rotated in an external magnetic field, propel by means of a flagellar bundle, similar to self-propelling peritrichous bacteria. Our theoretical analysis predicts that flagellar bundles that possess a length-dependent bending stiffness should exhibit a superior swimming speed compared to swimmers with a single appendage. The DNA self-assembly method permits the realization of these improved flagellar bundles in good agreement with our quantitative model. DNA flagella with well-controlled shape could fundamentally increase the functionality of fully biocompatible nanorobots and extend the scope and complexity of active materials.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl teaser web
Human Pose Estimation from Video and IMUs

Marcard, T. V., Pons-Moll, G., Rosenhahn, B.

Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence PAMI, 38(8):1533-1547, January 2016 (article)

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data pdf dataset_documentation [BibTex]

data pdf dataset_documentation [BibTex]


Thumb xl cloud tracking
Gaussian Process-Based Predictive Control for Periodic Error Correction

Klenske, E. D., Zeilinger, M., Schölkopf, B., Hennig, P.

IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology , 24(1):110-121, 2016 (article)

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PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Pymanopt: A Python Toolbox for Optimization on Manifolds using Automatic Differentiation

Townsend, J., Koep, N., Weichwald, S.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17(137):1-5, 2016 (article)

ei

PDF Arxiv Code Project page link (url) [BibTex]


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A Causal, Data-driven Approach to Modeling the Kepler Data

Wang, D., Hogg, D. W., Foreman-Mackey, D., Schölkopf, B.

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 128(967):094503, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Probabilistic Inference for Determining Options in Reinforcement Learning

Daniel, C., van Hoof, H., Peters, J., Neumann, G.

Machine Learning, Special Issue, 104(2):337-357, (Editors: Gärtner, T., Nanni, M., Passerini, A. and Robardet, C.), European Conference on Machine Learning im Machine Learning, Journal Track, 2016, Best Student Paper Award of ECML-PKDD 2016 (article)

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DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


Thumb xl weak supervision
Weak Supervision for Detecting Object Classes from Activities

Srikantha, A., Gall, J.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU), Elsevier, 2016 (article) In press

elsevier preprint link (url) DOI [BibTex]

elsevier preprint link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Influence of initial fixation position in scene viewing

Rothkegel, L. O. M., Trukenbrod, H. A., Schütt, H. H., Wichmann, F. A., Engbert, R.

Vision Research, 129, pages: 33-49, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Testing models of peripheral encoding using metamerism in an oddity paradigm

Wallis, T. S. A., Bethge, M., Wichmann, F. A.

Journal of Vision, 16(2), 2016 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Modeling Confounding by Half-Sibling Regression

Schölkopf, B., Hogg, D., Wang, D., Foreman-Mackey, D., Janzing, D., Simon-Gabriel, C. J., Peters, J.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 113(27):7391-7398, 2016 (article)

ei

Code link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

Code link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


Thumb xl dual control sampled b
Dual Control for Approximate Bayesian Reinforcement Learning

Klenske, E. D., Hennig, P.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17(127):1-30, 2016 (article)

ei pn

PDF link (url) [BibTex]

PDF link (url) [BibTex]


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A Population Based Gaussian Mixture Model Incorporating 18F-FDG-PET and DW-MRI Quantifies Tumor Tissue Classes

Divine, M. R., Katiyar, P., Kohlhofer, U., Quintanilla-Martinez, L., Disselhorst, J. A., Pichler, B. J.

Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 57(3):473-479, 2016 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl siyong
Shape estimation of subcutaneous adipose tissue using an articulated statistical shape model

Yeo, S. Y., Romero, J., Loper, M., Machann, J., Black, M.

Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization, 0(0):1-8, 2016 (article)

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publisher website preprint pdf link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

publisher website preprint pdf link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


Thumb xl img02
Probabilistic Duality for Parallel Gibbs Sampling without Graph Coloring

Mescheder, L., Nowozin, S., Geiger, A.

Arxiv, 2016 (article)

Abstract
We present a new notion of probabilistic duality for random variables involving mixture distributions. Using this notion, we show how to implement a highly-parallelizable Gibbs sampler for weakly coupled discrete pairwise graphical models with strictly positive factors that requires almost no preprocessing and is easy to implement. Moreover, we show how our method can be combined with blocking to improve mixing. Even though our method leads to inferior mixing times compared to a sequential Gibbs sampler, we argue that our method is still very useful for large dynamic networks, where factors are added and removed on a continuous basis, as it is hard to maintain a graph coloring in this setup. Similarly, our method is useful for parallelizing Gibbs sampling in graphical models that do not allow for graph colorings with a small number of colors such as densely connected graphs.

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pdf [BibTex]


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Painfree and accurate Bayesian estimation of psychometric functions for (potentially) overdispersed data

Schütt, H. H., Harmeling, S., Macke, J. H., Wichmann, F. A.

Vision Research, 122, pages: 105-123, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Hierarchical Relative Entropy Policy Search

Daniel, C., Neumann, G., Kroemer, O., Peters, J.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17(93):1-50, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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γ‐Conicein und Coniin aus Geflecktem Schierling

Puidokait, M., Graefe, J., Sehl, A., Steinke, K., Siehl, H., Zeller, K., Sicker, D., Berger, S.

Chemie in unserer Zeit, 50(6):382-391, 2016 (article)

mms

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Kernel Mean Shrinkage Estimators

Muandet, K., Sriperumbudur, B., Fukumizu, K., Gretton, A., Schölkopf, B.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17(48):1-41, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Learning to Deblur

Schuler, C. J., Hirsch, M., Harmeling, S., Schölkopf, B.

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 38(7):1439-1451, IEEE, 2016 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Transfer Learning in Brain-Computer Interfaces

Jayaram, V., Alamgir, M., Altun, Y., Schölkopf, B., Grosse-Wentrup, M.

IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, 11(1):20-31, 2016 (article)

ei

PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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MERLiN: Mixture Effect Recovery in Linear Networks

Weichwald, S., Grosse-Wentrup, M., Gretton, A.

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 10(7):1254-1266, 2016 (article)

ei

Arxiv Code PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]

Arxiv Code PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Causal inference using invariant prediction: identification and confidence intervals

Peters, J., Bühlmann, P., Meinshausen, N.

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Statistical Methodology), 78(5):947-1012, 2016, (with discussion) (article)

ei

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Causal discovery and inference: concepts and recent methodological advances

Spirtes, P., Zhang, K.

Applied Informatics, 3(3):1-28, 2016 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Self-regulation of brain rhythms in the precuneus: a novel BCI paradigm for patients with ALS

Fomina, T., Lohmann, G., Erb, M., Ethofer, T., Schölkopf, B., Grosse-Wentrup, M.

Journal of Neural Engineering, 13(6):066021, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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Influence Estimation and Maximization in Continuous-Time Diffusion Networks

Gomez-Rodriguez, M., Song, L., Du, N., Zha, H., Schölkopf, B.

ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 34(2):9:1-9:33, 2016 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]


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The population of long-period transiting exoplanets

Foreman-Mackey, D., Morton, T. D., Hogg, D. W., Agol, E., Schölkopf, B.

The Astronomical Journal, 152(6):206, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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Event-based Sampling for Reducing Communication Load in Realtime Human Motion Analysis by Wireless Inertial Sensor Networks

Laidig, D., Trimpe, S., Seel, T.

Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, 2(1):711-714, De Gruyter, 2016 (article)

am ics

PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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An overview of quantitative approaches in Gestalt perception

Jäkel, F., Singh, M., Wichmann, F. A., Herzog, M. H.

Vision Research, 126, pages: 3-8, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Interface-controlled phenomena in nanomaterials

Mittemeijer, Eric J.; Wang, Zumin

2016 (mpi_year_book)

Abstract
Nanosized material systems characteristically exhibit an excessively high internal interface density. A series of previously unknown phenomena in nanomaterials have been disclosed that are fundamentally caused by the presence of interfaces. Thus anomalously large and small lattice parameters in nanocrystalline metals, quantum stress oscillations in growing nanofilms, and extraordinary atomic mobility at ultralow temperatures have been observed and explained. The attained understanding for these new phenomena can lead to new, sophisticated applications of nanomaterials in advanced technologies.

link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Bootstrat: Population Informed Bootstrapping for Rare Variant Tests

Huang, H., Peloso, G. M., Howrigan, D., Rakitsch, B., Simon-Gabriel, C. J., Goldstein, J. I., Daly, M. J., Borgwardt, K., Neale, B. M.

bioRxiv, 2016, preprint (article)

ei

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Probabilistic Movement Models Show that Postural Control Precedes and Predicts Volitional Motor Control

Rueckert, E., Camernik, J., Peters, J., Babic, J.

Nature PG: Scientific Reports, 6(Article number: 28455), 2016 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Learning Taxonomy Adaptation in Large-scale Classification

Babbar, R., Partalas, I., Gaussier, E., Amini, M., Amblard, C.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17(98):1-37, 2016 (article)

ei

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


Thumb xl screen shot 2016 02 22 at 11.46.41
The GRASP Taxonomy of Human Grasp Types

Feix, T., Romero, J., Schmiedmayer, H., Dollar, A., Kragic, D.

Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 46(1):66-77, 2016 (article)

ps

publisher website pdf DOI Project Page [BibTex]

publisher website pdf DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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BOiS—Berlin Object in Scene Database: Controlled Photographic Images for Visual Search Experiments with Quantified Contextual Priors

Mohr, J., Seyfarth, J., Lueschow, A., Weber, J. E., Wichmann, F. A., Obermayer, K.

Frontiers in Psychology, 2016 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Preface to the ACM TIST Special Issue on Causal Discovery and Inference

Zhang, K., Li, J., Bareinboim, E., Schölkopf, B., Pearl, J.

ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technologies, 7(2):article no. 17, 2016 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Robots learn how to see

Geiger, A.

2016 (mpi_year_book)

Abstract
Autonomous vehicles and intelligent service robots could soon contribute to making our lives more pleasant and secure. However, for autonomous operation such systems first need to learn the perception process itself. This involves measuring distances and motions, detecting objects and interpreting the threedimensional world as a whole. While humans perceive their environment with seemingly little efforts, computers first need to be trained for these tasks. Our research is concerned with developing mathematical models which allow computers to robustly perceive their environment.

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl pami
Map-Based Probabilistic Visual Self-Localization

Brubaker, M. A., Geiger, A., Urtasun, R.

IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 2016 (article)

Abstract
Accurate and efficient self-localization is a critical problem for autonomous systems. This paper describes an affordable solution to vehicle self-localization which uses odometry computed from two video cameras and road maps as the sole inputs. The core of the method is a probabilistic model for which an efficient approximate inference algorithm is derived. The inference algorithm is able to utilize distributed computation in order to meet the real-time requirements of autonomous systems in some instances. Because of the probabilistic nature of the model the method is capable of coping with various sources of uncertainty including noise in the visual odometry and inherent ambiguities in the map (e.g., in a Manhattan world). By exploiting freely available, community developed maps and visual odometry measurements, the proposed method is able to localize a vehicle to 4m on average after 52 seconds of driving on maps which contain more than 2,150km of drivable roads.

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pdf Project Page [BibTex]

pdf Project Page [BibTex]