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2019


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Data scarcity, robustness and extreme multi-label classification

Babbar, R., Schölkopf, B.

Machine Learning, Special Issue of the ECML PKDD 2019 Journal Track, March 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

2019


DOI [BibTex]


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X-ray Optics Fabrication Using Unorthodox Approaches

Sanli, U., Baluktsian, M., Ceylan, H., Sitti, M., Weigand, M., Schütz, G., Keskinbora, K.

Bulletin of the American Physical Society, APS, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Learning Transferable Representations

Rojas-Carulla, M.

University of Cambridge, UK, 2019 (phdthesis)

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Sample-efficient deep reinforcement learning for continuous control

Gu, S.

University of Cambridge, UK, 2019 (phdthesis)

ei

[BibTex]


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Nanoscale detection of spin wave deflection angles in permalloy

Gross, F., Träger, N., Förster, J., Weigand, M., Schütz, G., Gräfe, J.

{Applied Physics Letters}, 114(1), American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Enhancing Human Learning via Spaced Repetition Optimization

Tabibian, B., Upadhyay, U., De, A., Zarezade, A., Schölkopf, B., Gomez Rodriguez, M.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2019, PNAS published ahead of print January 22, 2019 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]


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Spatial Filtering based on Riemannian Manifold for Brain-Computer Interfacing

Xu, J.

Technical University of Munich, Germany, 2019 (mastersthesis)

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Thumb xl screenshot 2019 03 25 at 14.29.22
Learning to Control Highly Accelerated Ballistic Movements on Muscular Robots

Büchler, D., Calandra, R., Peters, J.

2019 (article) Submitted

Abstract
High-speed and high-acceleration movements are inherently hard to control. Applying learning to the control of such motions on anthropomorphic robot arms can improve the accuracy of the control but might damage the system. The inherent exploration of learning approaches can lead to instabilities and the robot reaching joint limits at high speeds. Having hardware that enables safe exploration of high-speed and high-acceleration movements is therefore desirable. To address this issue, we propose to use robots actuated by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs). In this paper, we present a four degrees of freedom (DoFs) robot arm that reaches high joint angle accelerations of up to 28000 °/s^2 while avoiding dangerous joint limits thanks to the antagonistic actuation and limits on the air pressure ranges. With this robot arm, we are able to tune control parameters using Bayesian optimization directly on the hardware without additional safety considerations. The achieved tracking performance on a fast trajectory exceeds previous results on comparable PAM-driven robots. We also show that our system can be controlled well on slow trajectories with PID controllers due to careful construction considerations such as minimal bending of cables, lightweight kinematics and minimal contact between PAMs and PAMs with the links. Finally, we propose a novel technique to control the the co-contraction of antagonistic muscle pairs. Experimental results illustrate that choosing the optimal co-contraction level is vital to reach better tracking performance. Through the use of PAM-driven robots and learning, we do a small step towards the future development of robots capable of more human-like motions.

ei

Arxiv Video [BibTex]


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Coherent excitation of heterosymmetric spin waves with ultrashort wavelengths

Dieterle, G., Förster, J., Stoll, H., Semisalova, A. S., Finizio, S., Gangwar, A., Weigand, M., Noske, M., Fähnle, M., Bykova, I., Gräfe, J., Bozhko, D. A., Musiienko-Shmarova, H. Y., Tiberkevich, V., Slavin, A. N., Back, C. H., Raabe, J., Schütz, G., Wintz, S.

{Physical Review Letters}, 122(11), American Physical Society, Woodbury, N.Y., 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Reprogrammability and Scalability of Magnonic Fibonacci Quasicrystals

Lisiecki, F., Rychły, J., Kuświk, P., Głowiński, H., Kłos, J. W., Groß, F., Bykova, I., Weigand, M., Zelent, M., Goering, E. J., Schütz, G., Gubbiotti, G., Krawczyk, M., Stobiecki, F., Dubowik, J., Gräfe, J.

Physical Review Applied, 11, pages: 054003, 2019 (article)

Abstract
Magnonic crystals are systems that can be used to design and tune the dynamic properties of magnetization. Here, we focus on one-dimensional Fibonacci magnonic quasicrystals. We confirm the existence of collective spin waves propagating through the structure as well as dispersionless modes; the reprogammability of the resonance frequencies, dependent on the magnetization order; and dynamic spin-wave interactions. With the fundamental understanding of these properties, we lay a foundation for the scalable and advanced design of spin-wave band structures for spintronic, microwave, and magnonic applications.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Inferring causation from time series with perspectives in Earth system sciences

Runge, J., Bathiany, S., Bollt, E., Camps-Valls, G., Coumou, D., Deyle, E., Glymour, C., Kretschmer, M., Mahecha, M., van Nes, E., Peters, J., Quax, R., Reichstein, M., Scheffer, M. S. B., Spirtes, P., Sugihara, G., Sun, J., Zhang, K., Zscheischler, J.

Nature Communications, 2019 (article) In revision

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Magnons in a Quasicrystal: Propagation, Extinction, and Localization of Spin Waves in Fibonacci Structures

Lisiecki, F., Rychły, J., Kuświk, P., Głowiński, H., Kłos, J. W., Groß, F., Träger, N., Bykova, I., Weigand, M., Zelent, M., Goering, E. J., Schütz, G., Krawczyk, M., Stobiecki, F., Dubowik, J., Gräfe, J.

Physical Review Applied, 11, pages: 054061, 2019 (article)

Abstract
Magnonic quasicrystals exceed the possibilities of spin-wave (SW) manipulation offered by regular magnonic crystals, because of their more complex SW spectra with fractal characteristics. Here, we report the direct x-ray microscopic observation of propagating SWs in a magnonic quasicrystal, consisting of dipolar coupled permalloy nanowires arranged in a one-dimensional Fibonacci sequence. SWs from the first and second band as well as evanescent waves from the band gap between them are imaged. Moreover, additional mini band gaps in the spectrum are demonstrated, directly indicating an influence of the quasiperiodicity of the system. Finally, the localization of SW modes within the Fibonacci crystal is shown. The experimental results are interpreted using numerical calculations and we deduce a simple model to estimate the frequency position of the magnonic gaps in quasiperiodic structures. The demonstrated features of SW spectra in one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals allow utilizing this class of metamaterials for magnonics and make them an ideal basis for future applications.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Interpreting first-order reversal curves beyond the Preisach model: An experimental permalloy microarray investigation

Groß, F., Ilse, S. E., Schütz, G., Gräfe, J., Goering, E.

{Physical Review B}, 99(6), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Bistability of magnetic states in Fe-Pd nanocap arrays

Aravind, P. B., Heigl, M., Fix, M., Groß, F., Gräfe, J., Mary, A., Rajgowrav, C. R., Krupiński, M., Marszałek, M., Thomas, S., Anantharaman, M. R., Albrecht, M.

Nanotechnology, 30, pages: 405705, 2019 (article)

Abstract
Magnetic bistability between vortex and single domain states in nanostructures are of great interest from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In soft magnetic nanostructures, the transition from a uniform collinear magnetic state to a vortex state (or vice versa) induced by a magnetic field involves an energy barrier. If the thermal energy is large enough for overcoming this energy barrier, magnetic bistability with a hysteresis-free switching occurs between the two magnetic states. In this work, we tune this energy barrier by tailoring the composition of FePd alloys, which were deposited onto self-assembled particle arrays forming magnetic vortex structures on top of the particles. The bifurcation temperature, where a hysteresis-free transition occurs, was extracted from the temperature dependence of the annihilation and nucleation field which increases almost linearly with Fe content of the magnetic alloy. This study provides insights into the magnetization reversal process associated with magnetic bistability, which allows adjusting the bifurcation temperature range by the material properties of the nanosystem.

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link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Artifacts from manganese reduction in rock samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) slicing for X-ray microspectroscopy

Macholdt, D. S., Förster, J., Müller, M., Weber, B., Kappl, M., Kilcoyne, A. L. D., Weigand, M., Leitner, J., Jochum, K. P., Pöhlker, C., Andreae, M. O.

{Geoscientific instrumentation, methods and data systems}, 8(1):97-111, Copernicus Publ., Göttingen, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Mixed-state magnetotransport properties of MgB2 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition on an Al2O3 substrate

Alzayed, N. S., Shahabuddin, M., Ramey, S. M., Soltan, S.

{Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics}, 30(2):1547-1552, Springer, Norwell, MA, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Comparison of theories of fast and ultrafast magnetization dynamics

Fähnle, M.

{Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials}, 469, pages: 28-29, NH, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Concepts for improving hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials

Broom, D. P., Webb, C. J., Fanourgakis, G. S., Froudakis, G. E., Trikalitis, P. N., Hirscher, M.

{International Journal of Hydrogen Energy}, 44(15):7768-7779, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Controlling dislocation nucleation-mediatd plasticity in nanostructures via surface modification

Shin, J., Chen, L. Y., Sanli, U. T., Richter, G., Labat, S., Richard, M., Cornelius, T., Thomas, O., Gianola, D. S.

{Acta Materialia}, 166, pages: 572-586, Elsevier Science, Kidlington, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2014


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Modeling the polygenic architecture of complex traits

Rakitsch, Barbara

Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, November 2014 (phdthesis)

ei

[BibTex]

2014


[BibTex]


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Juggling revisited — A voxel based morphometry study with expert jugglers

Gerber, P., Schlaffke, L., Heba, S., Greenlee, M., Schultz, T., Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

NeuroImage, 95, pages: 320-325, 2014 (article)

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Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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Assessing attention and cognitive function in completely locked-in state with event-related brain potentials and epidural electrocorticography

Bensch, M., Martens, S., Halder, S., Hill, J., Nijboer, F., Ramos, A., Birbaumer, N., Bodgan, M., Kotchoubey, B., Rosenstiel, W., Schölkopf, B., Gharabaghi, A.

Journal of Neural Engineering, 11(2):026006, 2014 (article)

Abstract
Objective. Patients in the completely locked-in state (CLIS), due to, for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), no longer possess voluntary muscle control. Assessing attention and cognitive function in these patients during the course of the disease is a challenging but essential task for both nursing staff and physicians. Approach. An electrophysiological cognition test battery, including auditory and semantic stimuli, was applied in a late-stage ALS patient at four different time points during a six-month epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) recording period. Event-related cortical potentials (ERP), together with changes in the ECoG signal spectrum, were recorded via 128 channels that partially covered the left frontal, temporal and parietal cortex. Main results. Auditory but not semantic stimuli induced significant and reproducible ERP projecting to specific temporal and parietal cortical areas. N1/P2 responses could be detected throughout the whole study period. The highest P3 ERP was measured immediately after the patient's last communication through voluntary muscle control, which was paralleled by low theta and high gamma spectral power. Three months after the patient's last communication, i.e., in the CLIS, P3 responses could no longer be detected. At the same time, increased activity in low-frequency bands and a sharp drop of gamma spectral power were recorded. Significance. Cortical electrophysiological measures indicate at least partially intact attention and cognitive function during sparse volitional motor control for communication. Although the P3 ERP and frequency-specific changes in the ECoG spectrum may serve as indicators for CLIS, a close-meshed monitoring will be required to define the exact time point of the transition.

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Identifiability of Gaussian Structural Equation Models with Equal Error Variances

Peters, J., Bühlman, P.

Biometrika, 101(1):219-228, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Quantifying the effect of intertrial dependence on perceptual decisions

Fründ, I., Wichmann, F., Macke, J.

Journal of Vision, 14(7):1-16, 2014 (article)

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Web PDF link (url) DOI [BibTex]

Web PDF link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Two numerical models designed to reproduce Saturn ring temperatures as measured by Cassini-CIRS

Altobelli, N., Lopez-Paz, D., Pilorz, S., Spilker, L., Morishima, R., Brooks, S., Leyrat, C., Deau, E., Edgington, S., Flandes, A.

Icarus, 238(0):205 - 220, 2014 (article)

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Web link (url) DOI [BibTex]

Web link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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CAM: Causal Additive Models, high-dimensional order search and penalized regression

Bühlmann, P., Peters, J., Ernest, J.

Annals of Statistics, 42(6):2526-2556, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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A Novel Causal Inference Method for Time Series

Shajarisales, N.

Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Germany, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Germany, 2014 (mastersthesis)

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PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Policy Evaluation with Temporal Differences: A Survey and Comparison

Dann, C., Neumann, G., Peters, J.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 15, pages: 809-883, 2014 (article)

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PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Uncovering the Structure and Temporal Dynamics of Information Propagation

Gomez Rodriguez, M., Leskovec, J., Balduzzi, D., Schölkopf, B.

Network Science, 2(1):26-65, 2014 (article)

Abstract
Time plays an essential role in the diffusion of information, influence, and disease over networks. In many cases we can only observe when a node is activated by a contagion—when a node learns about a piece of information, makes a decision, adopts a new behavior, or becomes infected with a disease. However, the underlying network connectivity and transmission rates between nodes are unknown. Inferring the underlying diffusion dynamics is important because it leads to new insights and enables forecasting, as well as influencing or containing information propagation. In this paper we model diffusion as a continuous temporal process occurring at different rates over a latent, unobserved network that may change over time. Given information diffusion data, we infer the edges and dynamics of the underlying network. Our model naturally imposes sparse solutions and requires no parameter tuning. We develop an efficient inference algorithm that uses stochastic convex optimization to compute online estimates of the edges and transmission rates. We evaluate our method by tracking information diffusion among 3.3 million mainstream media sites and blogs, and experiment with more than 179 million different instances of information spreading over the network in a one-year period. We apply our network inference algorithm to the top 5,000 media sites and blogs and report several interesting observations. First, information pathways for general recurrent topics are more stable across time than for on-going news events. Second, clusters of news media sites and blogs often emerge and vanish in a matter of days for on-going news events. Finally, major events, for example, large scale civil unrest as in the Libyan civil war or Syrian uprising, increase the number of information pathways among blogs, and also increase the network centrality of blogs and social media sites.

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DOI [BibTex]


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Causal discovery via reproducing kernel Hilbert space embeddings

Chen, Z., Zhang, K., Chan, L., Schölkopf, B.

Neural Computation, 26(7):1484-1517, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Impact of Large-Scale Climate Extremes on Biospheric Carbon Fluxes: An Intercomparison Based on MsTMIP Data

Zscheischler, J., Michalak, A., Schwalm, M., Mahecha, M., Huntzinger, D., Reichstein, M., Berthier, G., Ciais, P., Cook, R., El-Masri, B., Huang, M., Ito, A., Jain, A., King, A., Lei, H., Lu, C., Mao, J., Peng, S., Poulter, B., Ricciuto, D., Shi, X., Tao, B., Tian, H., Viovy, N., Wang, W., Wei, Y., Yang, J., Zeng, N.

Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2014 (article)

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Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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A Brain-Computer Interface Based on Self-Regulation of Gamma-Oscillations in the Superior Parietal Cortex

Grosse-Wentrup, M., Schölkopf, B.

Journal of Neural Engineering, 11(5):056015, 2014 (article)

Abstract
Objective. Brain–computer interface (BCI) systems are often based on motor- and/or sensory processes that are known to be impaired in late stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We propose a novel BCI designed for patients in late stages of ALS that only requires high-level cognitive processes to transmit information from the user to the BCI. Approach. We trained subjects via EEG-based neurofeedback to self-regulate the amplitude of gamma-oscillations in the superior parietal cortex (SPC). We argue that parietal gamma-oscillations are likely to be associated with high-level attentional processes, thereby providing a communication channel that does not rely on the integrity of sensory- and/or motor-pathways impaired in late stages of ALS. Main results. Healthy subjects quickly learned to self-regulate gamma-power in the SPC by alternating between states of focused attention and relaxed wakefulness, resulting in an average decoding accuracy of 70.2%. One locked-in ALS patient (ALS-FRS-R score of zero) achieved an average decoding accuracy significantly above chance-level though insufficient for communication (55.8%). Significance. Self-regulation of gamma-power in the SPC is a feasible paradigm for brain–computer interfacing and may be preserved in late stages of ALS. This provides a novel approach to testing whether completely locked-in ALS patients retain the capacity for goal-directed thinking.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]


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On power law distributions in large-scale taxonomies

Babbar, R., Metzig, C., Partalas, I., Gaussier, E., Amini, M.

SIGKDD Explorations, Special Issue on Big Data, 16(1):47-56, 2014 (article)

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Predicting Motor Learning Performance from Electroencephalographic Data

Meyer, T., Peters, J., Zander, T., Schölkopf, B., Grosse-Wentrup, M.

Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 11:24, 2014 (article)

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PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Special issue on autonomous grasping and manipulation

Ben Amor, H., Saxena, A., Hudson, N., Peters, J.

Autonomous Robots, 36(1-2):1-3, 2014 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Evaluation of Positron Emission Tomographic Tracers for Imaging of Papillomavirus-Induced Tumors in Rabbits

Probst, S., Wiehr, S., Mantlik, F., Schmidt, H., Kolb, A., Münch, P., Delcuratolo, M., Stubenrauch, F., Pichler, B., Iftner, T.

Molecular Imaging, 13(1):1536-0121, 2014 (article)

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Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

Zscheischler, J., Reichstein, M., Harmeling, S., Rammig, A., Tomelleri, E., Mahecha, M.

Biogeosciences, 11, pages: 2909-2924, 2014 (article)

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PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Indirect Robot Model Learning for Tracking Control

Bocsi, B., Csató, L., Peters, J.

Advanced Robotics, 28(9):589-599, 2014 (article)

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PDF DOI [BibTex]


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An extended approach for spatiotemporal gapfilling: dealing with large and systematic gaps in geoscientific datasets

v Buttlar, J., Zscheischler, J., Mahecha, M.

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 21(1):203-215, 2014 (article)

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PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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On the Quantification Accuracy, Homogeneity, and Stability of Simultaneous Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems

Schmidt, H., Schwenzer, N., Bezrukov, I., Mantlik, F., Kolb, A., Kupferschläger, J., Pichler, B.

Investigative Radiology, 49(6):373-381, 2014 (article)

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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Natural Evolution Strategies

Wierstra, D., Schaul, T., Glasmachers, T., Sun, Y., Peters, J., Schmidhuber, J.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 15, pages: 949-980, 2014 (article)

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Factors controlling decomposition rates of fine root litter in temperate forests and grasslands

Solly, E., Schöning, I., Boch, S., Kandeler, E., Marhan, S., Michalzik, B., Müller, J., Zscheischler, J., Trumbore, S., Schrumpf, M.

Plant and Soil, 2014 (article)

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PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Causal Discovery with Continuous Additive Noise Models

Peters, J., Mooij, J., Janzing, D., Schölkopf, B.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 15, pages: 2009-2053, 2014 (article)

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


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A few extreme events dominate global interannual variability in gross primary production

Zscheischler, J., Mahecha, M., v Buttlar, J., Harmeling, S., Jung, M., Rammig, A., Randerson, J., Schölkopf, B., Seneviratne, S., Tomelleri, E., Zaehle, S., Reichstein, M.

Environmental Research Letters, 9(3):035001, 2014 (article)

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Kernel methods in system identification, machine learning and function estimation: A survey

Pillonetto, G., Dinuzzo, F., Chen, T., De Nicolao, G., Ljung, L.

Automatica, 50(3):657-682, 2014 (article)

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]