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2017


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Generalized exploration in policy search

van Hoof, H., Tanneberg, D., Peters, J.

Machine Learning, 106(9-10):1705-1724 , (Editors: Kurt Driessens, Dragi Kocev, Marko Robnik‐Sikonja, and Myra Spiliopoulou), October 2017, Special Issue of the ECML PKDD 2017 Journal Track (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

2017


DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Probabilistic Prioritization of Movement Primitives

Paraschos, A., Lioutikov, R., Peters, J., Neumann, G.

Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems, and IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L), 2(4):2294-2301, October 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Learning Movement Primitive Libraries through Probabilistic Segmentation

Lioutikov, R., Neumann, G., Maeda, G., Peters, J.

International Journal of Robotics Research, 36(8):879-894, July 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Guiding Trajectory Optimization by Demonstrated Distributions

Osa, T., Ghalamzan E., A. M., Stolkin, R., Lioutikov, R., Peters, J., Neumann, G.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2(2):819-826, April 2017 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Whole-body multi-contact motion in humans and humanoids: Advances of the CoDyCo European project

Padois, V., Ivaldi, S., Babic, J., Mistry, M., Peters, J., Nori, F.

Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 90, pages: 97-117, April 2017, Special Issue on New Research Frontiers for Intelligent Autonomous Systems (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Probabilistic Movement Primitives for Coordination of Multiple Human-Robot Collaborative Tasks

Maeda, G., Neumann, G., Ewerton, M., Lioutikov, R., Kroemer, O., Peters, J.

Autonomous Robots, 41(3):593-612, March 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Bioinspired tactile sensor for surface roughness discrimination

Yi, Z., Zhang, Y., Peters, J.

Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 255, pages: 46-53, March 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Model-based Contextual Policy Search for Data-Efficient Generalization of Robot Skills

Kupcsik, A., Deisenroth, M., Peters, J., Ai Poh, L., Vadakkepat, V., Neumann, G.

Artificial Intelligence, 247, pages: 415-439, 2017, Special Issue on AI and Robotics (article)

ei

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Anticipatory Action Selection for Human-Robot Table Tennis

Wang, Z., Boularias, A., Mülling, K., Schölkopf, B., Peters, J.

Artificial Intelligence, 247, pages: 399-414, 2017, Special Issue on AI and Robotics (article)

Abstract
Abstract Anticipation can enhance the capability of a robot in its interaction with humans, where the robot predicts the humans' intention for selecting its own action. We present a novel framework of anticipatory action selection for human-robot interaction, which is capable to handle nonlinear and stochastic human behaviors such as table tennis strokes and allows the robot to choose the optimal action based on prediction of the human partner's intention with uncertainty. The presented framework is generic and can be used in many human-robot interaction scenarios, for example, in navigation and human-robot co-manipulation. In this article, we conduct a case study on human-robot table tennis. Due to the limited amount of time for executing hitting movements, a robot usually needs to initiate its hitting movement before the opponent hits the ball, which requires the robot to be anticipatory based on visual observation of the opponent's movement. Previous work on Intention-Driven Dynamics Models (IDDM) allowed the robot to predict the intended target of the opponent. In this article, we address the problem of action selection and optimal timing for initiating a chosen action by formulating the anticipatory action selection as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), where the transition and observation are modeled by the \{IDDM\} framework. We present two approaches to anticipatory action selection based on the \{POMDP\} formulation, i.e., a model-free policy learning method based on Least-Squares Policy Iteration (LSPI) that employs the \{IDDM\} for belief updates, and a model-based Monte-Carlo Planning (MCP) method, which benefits from the transition and observation model by the IDDM. Experimental results using real data in a simulated environment show the importance of anticipatory action selection, and that \{POMDPs\} are suitable to formulate the anticipatory action selection problem by taking into account the uncertainties in prediction. We also show that existing algorithms for POMDPs, such as \{LSPI\} and MCP, can be applied to substantially improve the robot's performance in its interaction with humans.

am ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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easyGWAS: A Cloud-based Platform for Comparing the Results of Genome-wide Association Studies

Grimm, D., Roqueiro, D., Salome, P., Kleeberger, S., Greshake, B., Zhu, W., Liu, C., Lippert, C., Stegle, O., Schölkopf, B., Weigel, D., Borgwardt, K.

The Plant Cell, 29(1):5-19, 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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A Novel Unsupervised Segmentation Approach Quantifies Tumor Tissue Populations Using Multiparametric MRI: First Results with Histological Validation

Katiyar, P., Divine, M. R., Kohlhofer, U., Quintanilla-Martinez, L., Schölkopf, B., Pichler, B. J., Disselhorst, J. A.

Molecular Imaging and Biology, 19(3):391-397, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Minimax Estimation of Kernel Mean Embeddings

Tolstikhin, I., Sriperumbudur, B., Muandet, K.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 18(86):1-47, 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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Kernel Mean Embedding of Distributions: A Review and Beyond

Muandet, K., Fukumizu, K., Sriperumbudur, B., Schölkopf, B.

Foundations and Trends in Machine Learning, 10(1-2):1-141, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Prediction of intention during interaction with iCub with Probabilistic Movement Primitives

Dermy, O., Paraschos, A., Ewerton, M., Charpillet, F., Peters, J., Ivaldi, S.

Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 4, pages: 45, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Manifold-based multi-objective policy search with sample reuse

Parisi, S., Pirotta, M., Peters, J.

Neurocomputing, 263, pages: 3-14, (Editors: Madalina Drugan, Marco Wiering, Peter Vamplew, and Madhu Chetty), 2017, Special Issue on Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Spectral Clustering predicts tumor tissue heterogeneity using dynamic 18F-FDG PET: a complement to the standard compartmental modeling approach

Katiyar, P., Divine, M. R., Kohlhofer, U., Quintanilla-Martinez, L., Schölkopf, B., Pichler, B. J., Disselhorst, J. A.

Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 58(4):651-657, 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Electroencephalographic identifiers of motor adaptation learning

Ozdenizci, O., Yalcin, M., Erdogan, A., Patoglu, V., Grosse-Wentrup, M., Cetin, M.

Journal of Neural Engineering, 14(4):046027, 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Detecting distortions of peripherally presented letter stimuli under crowded conditions

Wallis, T. S. A., Tobias, S., Bethge, M., Wichmann, F. A.

Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 79(3):850-862, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Temporal evolution of the central fixation bias in scene viewing

Rothkegel, L. O. M., Trukenbrod, H. A., Schütt, H. H., Wichmann, F. A., Engbert, R.

Journal of Vision, 17(13):3, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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BundleMAP: Anatomically Localized Classification, Regression, and Hypothesis Testing in Diffusion MRI

Khatami, M., Schmidt-Wilcke, T., Sundgren, P. C., Abbasloo, A., Schölkopf, B., Schultz, T.

Pattern Recognition, 63, pages: 593-600, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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A parametric texture model based on deep convolutional features closely matches texture appearance for humans

Wallis, T. S. A., Funke, C. M., Ecker, A. S., Gatys, L. A., Wichmann, F. A., Bethge, M.

Journal of Vision, 17(12), 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Model Selection for Gaussian Mixture Models

Huang, T., Peng, H., Zhang, K.

Statistica Sinica, 27(1):147-169, 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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An image-computable psychophysical spatial vision model

Schütt, H. H., Wichmann, F. A.

Journal of Vision, 17(12), 2017 (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Methods and measurements to compare men against machines

Wichmann, F. A., Janssen, D. H. J., Geirhos, R., Aguilar, G., Schütt, H. H., Maertens, M., Bethge, M.

Electronic Imaging, pages: 36-45(10), 2017 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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A Comparison of Autoregressive Hidden Markov Models for Multimodal Manipulations With Variable Masses

Kroemer, O., Peters, J.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2(2):1101-1108, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Phase Estimation for Fast Action Recognition and Trajectory Generation in Human-Robot Collaboration

Maeda, G., Ewerton, M., Neumann, G., Lioutikov, R., Peters, J.

International Journal of Robotics Research, 36(13-14):1579-1594, 2017, Special Issue on the Seventeenth International Symposium on Robotics Research (article)

ei

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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A Phase-coded Aperture Camera with Programmable Optics

Chen, J., Hirsch, M., Heintzmann, R., Eberhardt, B., Lensch, H. P. A.

Electronic Imaging, 2017(17):70-75, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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On Maximum Entropy and Inference

Gresele, L., Marsili, M.

Entropy, 19(12):article no. 642, 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Towards Engagement Models that Consider Individual Factors in HRI: On the Relation of Extroversion and Negative Attitude Towards Robots to Gaze and Speech During a Human-Robot Assembly Task

Ivaldi, S., Lefort, S., Peters, J., Chetouani, M., Provasi, J., Zibetti, E.

International Journal of Social Robotics, 9(1):63-86, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Non-parametric Policy Search with Limited Information Loss

van Hoof, H., Neumann, G., Peters, J.

Journal of Machine Learning Research , 18(73):1-46, 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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Stability of Controllers for Gaussian Process Dynamics

Vinogradska, J., Bischoff, B., Nguyen-Tuong, D., Peters, J.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 18(100):1-37, 2017 (article)

ei

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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SUV-quantification of physiological lung tissue in an integrated PET/MR-system: Impact of lung density and bone tissue

Seith, F., Schmidt, H., Gatidis, S., Bezrukov, I., Schraml, C., Pfannenberg, C., la Fougère, C., Nikolaou, K., Schwenzer, N.

PLOS ONE, 12(5):1-13, 2017 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2007


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Reaction graph kernels for discovering missing enzymes in the plant secondary metabolism

Saigo, H., Hattori, M., Tsuda, K.

NIPS Workshop on Machine Learning in Computational Biology, December 2007 (talk)

Abstract
Secondary metabolic pathway in plant is important for finding druggable candidate enzymes. However, there are many enzymes whose functions are still undiscovered especially in organism-specific metabolic pathways. We propose reaction graph kernels for automatically assigning the EC numbers to unknown enzymatic reactions in a metabolic network. Experiments are carried out on KEGG/REACTION database and our method successfully predicted the first three digits of the EC number with 83% accuracy.We also exhaustively predicted missing enzymatic functions in the plant secondary metabolism pathways, and evaluated our results in biochemical validity.

ei

Web [BibTex]

2007


Web [BibTex]


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Positional Oligomer Importance Matrices

Sonnenburg, S., Zien, A., Philips, P., Rätsch, G.

NIPS Workshop on Machine Learning in Computational Biology, December 2007 (talk)

Abstract
At the heart of many important bioinformatics problems, such as gene finding and function prediction, is the classification of biological sequences, above all of DNA and proteins. In many cases, the most accurate classifiers are obtained by training SVMs with complex sequence kernels, for instance for transcription starts or splice sites. However, an often criticized downside of SVMs with complex kernels is that it is very hard for humans to understand the learned decision rules and to derive biological insights from them. To close this gap, we introduce the concept of positional oligomer importance matrices (POIMs) and develop an efficient algorithm for their computation. We demonstrate how they overcome the limitations of sequence logos, and how they can be used to find relevant motifs for different biological phenomena in a straight-forward way. Note that the concept of POIMs is not limited to interpreting SVMs, but is applicable to general k−mer based scoring systems.

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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Machine Learning Algorithms for Polymorphism Detection

Schweikert, G., Zeller, G., Weigel, D., Schölkopf, B., Rätsch, G.

NIPS Workshop on Machine Learning in Computational Biology, December 2007 (talk)

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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A Tutorial on Spectral Clustering

von Luxburg, U.

Statistics and Computing, 17(4):395-416, December 2007 (article)

Abstract
In recent years, spectral clustering has become one of the most popular modern clustering algorithms. It is simple to implement, can be solved efficiently by standard linear algebra software, and very often outperforms traditional clustering algorithms such as the k-means algorithm. On the first glance spectral clustering appears slightly mysterious, and it is not obvious to see why it works at all and what it really does. The goal of this tutorial is to give some intuition on those questions. We describe different graph Laplacians and their basic properties, present the most common spectral clustering algorithms, and derive those algorithms from scratch by several different approaches. Advantages and disadvantages of the different spectral clustering algorithms are discussed.

ei

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]


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An Automated Combination of Kernels for Predicting Protein Subcellular Localization

Zien, A., Ong, C.

NIPS Workshop on Machine Learning in Computational Biology, December 2007 (talk)

Abstract
Protein subcellular localization is a crucial ingredient to many important inferences about cellular processes, including prediction of protein function and protein interactions.We propose a new class of protein sequence kernels which considers all motifs including motifs with gaps. This class of kernels allows the inclusion of pairwise amino acid distances into their computation. We utilize an extension of the multiclass support vector machine (SVM)method which directly solves protein subcellular localization without resorting to the common approach of splitting the problem into several binary classification problems. To automatically search over families of possible amino acid motifs, we optimize over multiple kernels at the same time. We compare our automated approach to four other predictors on three different datasets, and show that we perform better than the current state of the art. Furthermore, our method provides some insights as to which features are most useful for determining subcellular localization, which are in agreement with biological reasoning.

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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A Tutorial on Kernel Methods for Categorization

Jäkel, F., Schölkopf, B., Wichmann, F.

Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 51(6):343-358, December 2007 (article)

Abstract
The abilities to learn and to categorize are fundamental for cognitive systems, be it animals or machines, and therefore have attracted attention from engineers and psychologists alike. Modern machine learning methods and psychological models of categorization are remarkably similar, partly because these two fields share a common history in artificial neural networks and reinforcement learning. However, machine learning is now an independent and mature field that has moved beyond psychologically or neurally inspired algorithms towards providing foundations for a theory of learning that is rooted in statistics and functional analysis. Much of this research is potentially interesting for psychological theories of learning and categorization but also hardly accessible for psychologists. Here, we provide a tutorial introduction to a popular class of machine learning tools, called kernel methods. These methods are closely related to perceptrons, radial-basis-function neural networks and exemplar theories of catego rization. Recent theoretical advances in machine learning are closely tied to the idea that the similarity of patterns can be encapsulated in a positive definite kernel. Such a positive definite kernel can define a reproducing kernel Hilbert space which allows one to use powerful tools from functional analysis for the analysis of learning algorithms. We give basic explanations of some key concepts—the so-called kernel trick, the representer theorem and regularization—which may open up the possibility that insights from machine learning can feed back into psychology.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Accurate Splice site Prediction Using Support Vector Machines

Sonnenburg, S., Schweikert, G., Philips, P., Behr, J., Rätsch, G.

BMC Bioinformatics, 8(Supplement 10):1-16, December 2007 (article)

Abstract
Background: For splice site recognition, one has to solve two classification problems: discriminating true from decoy splice sites for both acceptor and donor sites. Gene finding systems typically rely on Markov Chains to solve these tasks. Results: In this work we consider Support Vector Machines for splice site recognition. We employ the so-called weighted degree kernel which turns out well suited for this task, as we will illustrate in several experiments where we compare its prediction accuracy with that of recently proposed systems. We apply our method to the genome-wide recognition of splice sites in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens. Our performance estimates indicate that splice sites can be recognized very accurately in these genomes and that our method outperforms many other methods including Markov Chains, GeneSplicer and SpliceMachine. We provide genome-wide predictions of splice sites and a stand-alone prediction tool ready to be used for incorporation in a gene finder. Availability: Data, splits, additional information on the model selection, the whole genome predictions, as well as the stand-alone prediction tool are available for download at http:// www.fml.mpg.de/raetsch/projects/splice.

ei

PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Challenges in Brain-Computer Interface Development: Induction, Measurement, Decoding, Integration

Hill, NJ.

Invited keynote talk at the launch of BrainGain, the Dutch BCI research consortium, November 2007 (talk)

Abstract
I‘ll present a perspective on Brain-Computer Interface development from T{\"u}bingen. Some of the benefits promised by BCI technology lie in the near foreseeable future, and some further away. Our motivation is to make BCI technology feasible for the people who could benefit from what it has to offer soon: namely, people in the "completely locked-in" state. I‘ll mention some of the challenges of working with this user group, and explain the specific directions they have motivated us to take in developing experimental methods, algorithms, and software.

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Policy Learning for Robotics

Peters, J.

14th International Conference on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP), November 2007 (talk)

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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A unifying framework for robot control with redundant DOFs

Peters, J., Mistry, M., Udwadia, F., Nakanishi, J., Schaal, S.

Autonomous Robots, 24(1):1-12, October 2007 (article)

Abstract
Recently, Udwadia (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 2003:1783–1800, 2003) suggested to derive tracking controllers for mechanical systems with redundant degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) using a generalization of Gauss’ principle of least constraint. This method allows reformulating control problems as a special class of optimal controllers. In this paper, we take this line of reasoning one step further and demonstrate that several well-known and also novel nonlinear robot control laws can be derived from this generic methodology. We show experimental verifications on a Sarcos Master Arm robot for some of the derived controllers. The suggested approach offers a promising unification and simplification of nonlinear control law design for robots obeying rigid body dynamics equations, both with or without external constraints, with over-actuation or underactuation, as well as open-chain and closed-chain kinematics.

ei

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]


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The Need for Open Source Software in Machine Learning

Sonnenburg, S., Braun, M., Ong, C., Bengio, S., Bottou, L., Holmes, G., LeCun, Y., Müller, K., Pereira, F., Rasmussen, C., Rätsch, G., Schölkopf, B., Smola, A., Vincent, P., Weston, J., Williamson, R.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 8, pages: 2443-2466, October 2007 (article)

Abstract
Open source tools have recently reached a level of maturity which makes them suitable for building large-scale real-world systems. At the same time, the field of machine learning has developed a large body of powerful learning algorithms for diverse applications. However, the true potential of these methods is not realized, since existing implementations are not openly shared, resulting in software with low usability, and weak interoperability. We argue that this situation can be significantly improved by increasing incentives for researchers to publish their software under an open source model. Additionally, we outline the problems authors are faced with when trying to publish algorithmic implementations of machine learning methods. We believe that a resource of peer reviewed software accompanied by short articles would be highly valuable to both the machine learning and the general scientific community.

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


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Hilbert Space Representations of Probability Distributions

Gretton, A.

2nd Workshop on Machine Learning and Optimization at the ISM, October 2007 (talk)

Abstract
Many problems in unsupervised learning require the analysis of features of probability distributions. At the most fundamental level, we might wish to determine whether two distributions are the same, based on samples from each - this is known as the two-sample or homogeneity problem. We use kernel methods to address this problem, by mapping probability distributions to elements in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). Given a sufficiently rich RKHS, these representations are unique: thus comparing feature space representations allows us to compare distributions without ambiguity. Applications include testing whether cancer subtypes are distinguishable on the basis of DNA microarray data, and whether low frequency oscillations measured at an electrode in the cortex have a different distribution during a neural spike. A more difficult problem is to discover whether two random variables drawn from a joint distribution are independent. It turns out that any dependence between pairs of random variables can be encoded in a cross-covariance operator between appropriate RKHS representations of the variables, and we may test independence by looking at a norm of the operator. We demonstrate this independence test by establishing dependence between an English text and its French translation, as opposed to French text on the same topic but otherwise unrelated. Finally, we show that this operator norm is itself a difference in feature means.

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


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Regression with Intervals

Kashima, H., Yamazaki, K., Saigo, H., Inokuchi, A.

International Workshop on Data-Mining and Statistical Science (DMSS2007), October 2007, JSAI Incentive Award. Talk was given by Hisashi Kashima. (talk)

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]