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2018


Softness, Warmth, and Responsiveness Improve Robot Hugs
Softness, Warmth, and Responsiveness Improve Robot Hugs

Block, A. E., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

International Journal of Social Robotics, 11(1):49-64, October 2018 (article)

Abstract
Hugs are one of the first forms of contact and affection humans experience. Due to their prevalence and health benefits, roboticists are naturally interested in having robots one day hug humans as seamlessly as humans hug other humans. This project's purpose is to evaluate human responses to different robot physical characteristics and hugging behaviors. Specifically, we aim to test the hypothesis that a soft, warm, touch-sensitive PR2 humanoid robot can provide humans with satisfying hugs by matching both their hugging pressure and their hugging duration. Thirty relatively young and rather technical participants experienced and evaluated twelve hugs with the robot, divided into three randomly ordered trials that focused on physical robot characteristics (single factor, three levels) and nine randomly ordered trials with low, medium, and high hug pressure and duration (two factors, three levels each). Analysis of the results showed that people significantly prefer soft, warm hugs over hard, cold hugs. Furthermore, users prefer hugs that physically squeeze them and release immediately when they are ready for the hug to end. Taking part in the experiment also significantly increased positive user opinions of robots and robot use.

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link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

2018


link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Instrumentation, Data, and Algorithms for Visually Understanding Haptic Surface Properties

Burka, A. L.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, August 2018, Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering (phdthesis)

Abstract
Autonomous robots need to efficiently walk over varied surfaces and grasp diverse objects. We hypothesize that the association between how such surfaces look and how they physically feel during contact can be learned from a database of matched haptic and visual data recorded from various end-effectors' interactions with hundreds of real-world surfaces. Testing this hypothesis required the creation of a new multimodal sensing apparatus, the collection of a large multimodal dataset, and development of a machine-learning pipeline. This thesis begins by describing the design and construction of the Portable Robotic Optical/Tactile ObservatioN PACKage (PROTONPACK, or Proton for short), an untethered handheld sensing device that emulates the capabilities of the human senses of vision and touch. Its sensory modalities include RGBD vision, egomotion, contact force, and contact vibration. Three interchangeable end-effectors (a steel tooling ball, an OptoForce three-axis force sensor, and a SynTouch BioTac artificial fingertip) allow for different material properties at the contact point and provide additional tactile data. We then detail the calibration process for the motion and force sensing systems, as well as several proof-of-concept surface discrimination experiments that demonstrate the reliability of the device and the utility of the data it collects. This thesis then presents a large-scale dataset of multimodal surface interaction recordings, including 357 unique surfaces such as furniture, fabrics, outdoor fixtures, and items from several private and public material sample collections. Each surface was touched with one, two, or three end-effectors, comprising approximately one minute per end-effector of tapping and dragging at various forces and speeds. We hope that the larger community of robotics researchers will find broad applications for the published dataset. Lastly, we demonstrate an algorithm that learns to estimate haptic surface properties given visual input. Surfaces were rated on hardness, roughness, stickiness, and temperature by the human experimenter and by a pool of purely visual observers. Then we trained an algorithm to perform the same task as well as infer quantitative properties calculated from the haptic data. Overall, the task of predicting haptic properties from vision alone proved difficult for both humans and computers, but a hybrid algorithm using a deep neural network and a support vector machine achieved a correlation between expected and actual regression output between approximately ρ = 0.3 and ρ = 0.5 on previously unseen surfaces.

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


Robust Visual Augmented Reality in Robot-Assisted Surgery
Robust Visual Augmented Reality in Robot-Assisted Surgery

Forte, M. P.

Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, July 2018, Department of Electronic, Information, and Biomedical Engineering (mastersthesis)

Abstract
The broader research objective of this line of research is to test the hypothesis that real-time stereo video analysis and augmented reality can increase safety and task efficiency in robot-assisted surgery. This master’s thesis aims to solve the first step needed to achieve this goal: the creation of a robust system that delivers the envisioned feedback to a surgeon while he or she controls a surgical robot that is identical to those used on human patients. Several approaches for applying augmented reality to da Vinci Surgical Systems have been proposed, but none of them entirely rely on a clinical robot; specifically, they require additional sensors, depend on access to the da Vinci API, are designed for a very specific task, or were tested on systems that are starkly different from those in clinical use. There has also been prior work that presents the real-world camera view and the computer graphics on separate screens, or not in real time. In other scenarios, the digital information is overlaid manually by the surgeons themselves or by computer scientists, rather than being generated automatically in response to the surgeon’s actions. We attempted to overcome the aforementioned constraints by acquiring input signals from the da Vinci stereo endoscope and providing augmented reality to the console in real time (less than 150 ms delay, including the 62 ms of inherent latency of the da Vinci). The potential benefits of the resulting system are broad because it was built to be general, rather than customized for any specific task. The entire platform is compatible with any generation of the da Vinci System and does not require a dVRK (da Vinci Research Kit) or access to the API. Thus, it can be applied to existing da Vinci Systems in operating rooms around the world.

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Task-Driven PCA-Based Design Optimization of Wearable Cutaneous Devices

Pacchierotti, C., Young, E. M., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 3(3):2214-2221, July 2018, Presented at ICRA 2018 (article)

Abstract
Small size and low weight are critical requirements for wearable and portable haptic interfaces, making it essential to work toward the optimization of their sensing and actuation systems. This paper presents a new approach for task-driven design optimization of fingertip cutaneous haptic devices. Given one (or more) target tactile interactions to render and a cutaneous device to optimize, we evaluate the minimum number and best configuration of the device’s actuators to minimize the estimated haptic rendering error. First, we calculate the motion needed for the original cutaneous device to render the considered target interaction. Then, we run a principal component analysis (PCA) to search for possible couplings between the original motor inputs, looking also for the best way to reconfigure them. If some couplings exist, we can re-design our cutaneous device with fewer motors, optimally configured to render the target tactile sensation. The proposed approach is quite general and can be applied to different tactile sensors and cutaneous devices. We validated it using a BioTac tactile sensor and custom plate-based 3-DoF and 6-DoF fingertip cutaneous devices, considering six representative target tactile interactions. The algorithm was able to find couplings between each device’s motor inputs, proving it to be a viable approach to optimize the design of wearable and portable cutaneous devices. Finally, we present two examples of optimized designs for our 3-DoF fingertip cutaneous device.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Robust Physics-based Motion Retargeting with Realistic Body Shapes
Robust Physics-based Motion Retargeting with Realistic Body Shapes

Borno, M. A., Righetti, L., Black, M. J., Delp, S. L., Fiume, E., Romero, J.

Computer Graphics Forum, 37, pages: 6:1-12, July 2018 (article)

Abstract
Motion capture is often retargeted to new, and sometimes drastically different, characters. When the characters take on realistic human shapes, however, we become more sensitive to the motion looking right. This means adapting it to be consistent with the physical constraints imposed by different body shapes. We show how to take realistic 3D human shapes, approximate them using a simplified representation, and animate them so that they move realistically using physically-based retargeting. We develop a novel spacetime optimization approach that learns and robustly adapts physical controllers to new bodies and constraints. The approach automatically adapts the motion of the mocap subject to the body shape of a target subject. This motion respects the physical properties of the new body and every body shape results in a different and appropriate movement. This makes it easy to create a varied set of motions from a single mocap sequence by simply varying the characters. In an interactive environment, successful retargeting requires adapting the motion to unexpected external forces. We achieve robustness to such forces using a novel LQR-tree formulation. We show that the simulated motions look appropriate to each character’s anatomy and their actions are robust to perturbations.

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pdf video Project Page Project Page [BibTex]

pdf video Project Page Project Page [BibTex]


Teaching a Robot Bimanual Hand-Clapping Games via Wrist-Worn {IMU}s
Teaching a Robot Bimanual Hand-Clapping Games via Wrist-Worn IMUs

Fitter, N. T., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Frontiers in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence, 5(85), July 2018 (article)

Abstract
Colleagues often shake hands in greeting, friends connect through high fives, and children around the world rejoice in hand-clapping games. As robots become more common in everyday human life, they will have the opportunity to join in these social-physical interactions, but few current robots are intended to touch people in friendly ways. This article describes how we enabled a Baxter Research Robot to both teach and learn bimanual hand-clapping games with a human partner. Our system monitors the user's motions via a pair of inertial measurement units (IMUs) worn on the wrists. We recorded a labeled library of 10 common hand-clapping movements from 10 participants; this dataset was used to train an SVM classifier to automatically identify hand-clapping motions from previously unseen participants with a test-set classification accuracy of 97.0%. Baxter uses these sensors and this classifier to quickly identify the motions of its human gameplay partner, so that it can join in hand-clapping games. This system was evaluated by N = 24 naïve users in an experiment that involved learning sequences of eight motions from Baxter, teaching Baxter eight-motion game patterns, and completing a free interaction period. The motion classification accuracy in this less structured setting was 85.9%, primarily due to unexpected variations in motion timing. The quantitative task performance results and qualitative participant survey responses showed that learning games from Baxter was significantly easier than teaching games to Baxter, and that the teaching role caused users to consider more teamwork aspects of the gameplay. Over the course of the experiment, people felt more understood by Baxter and became more willing to follow the example of the robot. Users felt uniformly safe interacting with Baxter, and they expressed positive opinions of Baxter and reported fun interacting with the robot. Taken together, the results indicate that this robot achieved credible social-physical interaction with humans and that its ability to both lead and follow systematically changed the human partner's experience.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Automatically Rating Trainee Skill at a Pediatric Laparoscopic Suturing Task

Oquendo, Y. A., Riddle, E. W., Hiller, D., Blinman, T. A., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Surgical Endoscopy, 32(4):1840-1857, April 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Active microrheology in corrugated channels

Puertas, A. M., Malgaretti, P., Pagonabarraga, I.

The Journal of Chemical Physics, 149(17), American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, N.Y., 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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First-passage dynamics of linear stochastic interface models: weak-noise theory and influence of boundary conditions

Gross, M.

Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2018, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, England, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Cu@TiO2 Janus microswimmers with a versatile motion mechanism

Wang, L. L., Popescu, M. N., Stavale, F., Ali, A., Gemming, T., Simmchen, J.

Soft Matter, 14(34):6969-6973, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Probing interface localization-delocalization transitions by colloids

Kondrat, S., Vasilyev, O., Dietrich, S.

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 30(41), IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Medical imaging for the tracking of micromotors

Vilela, D., Coss\’\io, U., Parmar, J., Mart\’\inez-Villacorta, A. M., Gómez-Vallejo, V., Llop, J., Sánchez, S.

ACS Nano, 12(2):1220-1227, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Noncontinuous Super-Diffusive Dynamics of a Light-Activated Nanobottle Motor

Xuan, M., Mestre, R., Gao, C., Zhou, C., He, Q., Sánchez, S.

Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 57(23):6838-6842, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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On the origin of forward-backward multiplicity correlations in pp collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

Bravina, L., Bleibel, J., Zabrodin, E.

Physics Letters B, 787, pages: 146-152, North-Holland, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Autophoretic motion in three dimensions

Lisicki, M., Reigh, S., Lauga, E.

Soft Matter, 14(17):3304-3314, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Order-disorder transitions in lattice gases with annealed reactive constraints

Dudka, M., Bénichou, O., Oshanin, G.

Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2018, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, England, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Bacterial Biohybrid Microswimmers

Bastos-Arrieta, J., Revilla-Guarinos, A., Uspal, W., Simmchen, J.

Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 5, Frontiers Media, Lausanne, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Fluctuational electrodynamics for nonlinear materials in and out of thermal equilibrium

Soo, H., Krüger, M.

Physical Review B, 97(4), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Local pressure for confined systems

Malgaretti, P., Bier, M.

Physical Review E, 97(2), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Immersive Low-Cost Virtual Reality Treatment for Phantom Limb Pain: Evidence from Two Cases

Ambron, E., Miller, A., Kuchenbecker, K. J., Buxbaum, L. J., Coslett, H. B.

Frontiers in Neurology, 9(67):1-7, 2018 (article)

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DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Charge polarization, local electroneutrality breakdown and eddy formation due to electroosmosis in varying-section channels

Chinappi, M., Malgaretti, P.

Soft Matter, 14(45):9083-9087, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Critical Casimir interactions and percolation: The quantitative description of critical fluctuations

Vasilyev, O.

Physical Review E, 98(6), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Shear-density coupling for a compressible single-component yield-stress fluid

Gross, M., Varnik, F.

Soft Matter, 14(22):4577-4590, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Pattern forming systems under confinement

Maihöfer, Michael

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2018 (mastersthesis)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Shape-dependent guidance of active Janus particles by chemically patterned surfaces

Uspal, W. E., Popescu, M. N., Tasinkevych, M., Dietrich, S.

New Journal of Physics, 20, IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Extrapolation to nonequilibrium from coarse-grained response theory

Basu, U., Helden, L., Krüger, M.

Physical Review Letters, 120(18), American Physical Society, Woodbury, N.Y., 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Directed Flow of Micromotors through Alignment Interactions with Micropatterned Ratchets

Katuri, J., Caballero, D., Voituriez, R., Samitier, J., Sánchez, S.

ACS Nano, 12(7):7282-7291, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Spontaneous symmetry breaking of charge-regulated surfaces

Majee, A., Bier, M., Podgornik, R.

Soft Matter, 14(6):985-991, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Electrostatic interaction between dissimilar colloids at fluid interfaces

Majee, A., Schmetzer, T., Bier, M.

Physical Review E, 97(4), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Wetting transition of a cylindrical cavity engraved on a hydrophobic surface

Kim, H., Ha, M. Y., Jang, J.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122(4):2122-2126, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Effective interactions between colloidal particles in critical solvents

Labbe-Laurent, M.

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2018 (phdthesis)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Curvature corrections to the nonlocal interfacial model for short-ranged forces

Romero-Enrique, J.M., Squarcini, Alessio, Parry, A. O., Goldbart, P. M.

Physical Review E, 97(6), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Effective squirmer models for self-phoretic chemically active spherical colloids

Popescu, M. N., Uspal, W. E., Eskandari, Z., Tasinkevych, M., Dietrich, S.

The European Physical Journal E, 41(12), EDP Sciences; Società Italiana di Fisica; Springer, Les Ulis; Bologna; Heidelberg, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Two time scales for self and collective diffusion near the critical point in a simple patchy model for proteins with floating bonds

Bleibel, J., Habiger, M., Lütje, M., Hirschmann, F., Roosen-Runge, F., Seydel, T., Zhang, F., Schreiber, F., Oettel, M.

Soft Matter, 14(39):8006-8016, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Globulelike Conformation and Enhanced Diffusion of Active Polymers

Bianco, V., Locatelli, E., Malgaretti, P.

Physical Review Letters, 121(21), American Physical Society, Woodbury, N.Y., 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Rheological behavior of colloidal suspension with long-range interactions

Arietaleaniz, S., Malgaretti, P., Pagonabarraga, I., Hidalgo, R. C.

Physical Review E, 98(4), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Solvent coarsening around colloids driven by temperature gradients

Roy, S., Dietrich, S., Maciolek, A.

Physical Review E, 97(4), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Cross-stream migration of active particles

Katuri, J., Uspal, W., Simmchen, J., López, A. M., Sanchez, S.

Science Advances, 4(1), AAAS, Washington, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Transient dynamics of electric double-layer capacitors: Exact expressions within the Debye-Falkenhagen approximation

Janssen, M., Bier, M.

Physical Review E, 97(5), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Coalescence preference and droplet size inequality during fluid phase segregation

Roy, S.

EPL, 121(3), EDP Science, Les-Ulis, 2018 (article)

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Structure of interfaces at phase coexistence. Theory and numerics

Delfino, G., Selke, W., Squarcini, A.

Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2018, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, England, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Power spectral density of a single Brownian trajectory: what one can and cannot learn from it

Krapf, D., Marinari, E., Metzler, Ralf, Oshanin, Gleb, Xu, Xinran, Squarcini, A.

New Journal of Physics, 20, IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Diffusiophoretically induced interactions between chemically active and inert particles

Reigh, Shang-Yik, Chuphal, P., Thakur, S., Kapral, R.

Soft Matter, 14(29):6043-6057, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Non-equilibrium dynamics of a binary solvent around heated colloidal particles

Wilke, Moritz

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2018 (mastersthesis)

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Collective behavior of colloids due to critical Casimir interactions

Maciolek, A., Dietrich, S.

Reviews of Modern Physics, 90(4), American Physical Society, Minneapolis, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Heat radiation and transfer in confinement

Asheichyk, K., Krüger, M.

Physical Review B, 98(19), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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A ferronematic slab in external magnetic fields

Zarubin, G., Bier, M., Dietrich, S.

Soft Matter, 14(48):9806-9818, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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Surface-induced nonequilibrium dynamics and critical Casimir forces for model B in film geometry

Gross, M., Gambassi, A., Dietrich, S.

Physical Review E, 98(3), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Phase separation around a heated colloid in bulk and under confinement

Roy, S., Maciolek, A.

Soft Matter, 14(46):9326-9335, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Electrolyte solutions at heterogeneously charged substrates

Mu\ssotter, M., Bier, M., Dietrich, S.

Soft Matter, 14(20):4126-4140, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2018 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]