Header logo is


2019


no image
How do people learn how to plan?

Jain, Y. R., Gupta, S., Rakesh, V., Dayan, P., Callaway, F., Lieder, F.

Conference on Cognitive Computational Neuroscience, September 2019 (conference)

re

[BibTex]

2019


[BibTex]


no image
An ACT-R approach to investigating mechanisms of performance-related changes in an interrupted learning task

Wirzberger, M., Borst, J. P., Krems, J. F., Rey, G. D.

41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society., July 2019 (conference)

re

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


no image
What’s in the Adaptive Toolbox and How Do People Choose From It? Rational Models of Strategy Selection in Risky Choice

Mohnert, F., Pachur, T., Lieder, F.

41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, July 2019 (conference)

re

[BibTex]


no image
Measuring how people learn how to plan

Jain, Y. R., Callaway, F., Lieder, F.

RLDM 2019, July 2019 (conference)

re

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


no image
Measuring how people learn how to plan

Jain, Y. R., Callaway, F., Lieder, F.

41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, July 2019 (conference)

re

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


no image
A model-based explanation of performance related changes in abstract stimulus-response learning

Wirzberger, M., Borst, J. P., Krems, J. F., Rey, G. D.

52nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Mathematical Psychology, July 2019 (conference)

Abstract
Stimulus-response learning constitutes an important part of human experience over the life course. Independent of the domain, it is characterized by changes in performance with increasing task progress. But what cognitive mechanisms are responsible for these changes and how do additional task requirements affect the related dynamics? To inspect that in more detail, we introduce a computational modeling approach that investigates performance-related changes in learning situations with reference to chunk activation patterns. It leverages the cognitive architecture ACT-R to model learner behavior in abstract stimulus-response learning in two conditions of task complexity. Additional situational demands are reflected in embedded secondary tasks that interrupt participants during the learning process. Our models apply an activation equation that also takes into account the association between related nodes of information and the similarity between potential responses. Model comparisons with two human datasets (N = 116 and N = 123 participants) indicate a good fit in terms of both accuracy and reaction times. Based on the existing neurophysiological mapping of ACT-R modules on defined human brain areas, we convolve recorded module activity into simulated BOLD responses to investigate underlying cognitive mechanisms in more detail. The resulting evidence supports the connection of learning effects in both task conditions with activation-related patterns to explain changes in performance.

re

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


no image
A cognitive tutor for helping people overcome present bias

Lieder, F., Callaway, F., Jain, Y., Krueger, P., Das, P., Gul, S., Griffiths, T.

RLDM 2019, July 2019 (conference)

re

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


no image
Introducing the Decision Advisor: A simple online tool that helps people overcome cognitive biases and experience less regret in real-life decisions

Iwama, G., Greenberg, S., Moore, D., Lieder, F.

40th Annual Meeting of the Society for Judgement and Decision Making, June 2019 (conference)

re

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


no image
Spatial Continuity Effect vs. Spatial Contiguity Failure. Revising the Effects of Spatial Proximity Between Related and Unrelated Representations

Beege, M., Wirzberger, M., Nebel, S., Schneider, S., Schmidt, N., Rey, G. D.

Frontiers in Education, 4:86, 2019 (article)

Abstract
The split-attention effect refers to learning with related representations in multimedia. Spatial proximity and integration of these representations are crucial for learning processes. The influence of varying amounts of proximity between related and unrelated information has not yet been specified. In two experiments (N1 = 98; N2 = 85), spatial proximity between a pictorial presentation and text labels was manipulated (high vs. medium vs. low). Additionally, in experiment 1, a control group with separated picture and text presentation was implemented. The results revealed a significant effect of spatial proximity on learning performance. In contrast to previous studies, the medium condition leads to the highest transfer, and in experiment 2, the highest retention score. These results are interpreted considering cognitive load and instructional efficiency. Findings indicate that transfer efficiency is optimal at a medium distance between representations in experiment 1. Implications regarding the spatial contiguity principle and the spatial contiguity failure are discussed.

re

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


no image
Load-inducing factors in instructional design: Process-related advances in theory and assessment

Wirzberger, M.

TU Chemnitz, 2019 (phdthesis)

Abstract
This thesis addresses ongoing controversies in cognitive load research related to the scope and interplay of resource-demanding factors in instructional situations on a temporal perspective. In a novel approach, it applies experimental task frameworks from basic cognitive research and combines different methods for assessing cognitive load and underlying cognitive processes. Taken together, the obtained evidence emphasizes a process-related reconceptualization of the existing theoretical cognitive load framework and underlines the importance of a multimethod-approach to continuous cognitive load assessment. On a practical side, it informs the development of adaptive algorithms and the learner-aligned design of instructional support and thus leverages a pathway towards intelligent educational assistants.

re

link (url) [BibTex]


no image
Doing more with less: Meta-reasoning and meta-learning in humans and machines

Griffiths, T., Callaway, F., Chang, M., Grant, E., Krueger, P. M., Lieder, F.

Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 2019 (article)

re

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


no image
Cognitive Prostheses for Goal Achievement

Lieder, F., Chen, O. X., Krueger, P. M., Griffiths, T.

Nature Human Behavior, 2019 (article)

re

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


no image
Remediating cognitive decline with cognitive tutors

Das, P., Callaway, F., Griffiths, T., Lieder, F.

RLDM 2019, 2019 (conference)

re

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


no image
Robust Humanoid Locomotion Using Trajectory Optimization and Sample-Efficient Learning

Yeganegi, M. H., Khadiv, M., Moosavian, S. A. A., Zhu, J., Prete, A. D., Righetti, L.

Proceedings International Conference on Humanoid Robots, IEEE, 2019 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2019 (conference)

Abstract
Trajectory optimization (TO) is one of the most powerful tools for generating feasible motions for humanoid robots. However, including uncertainties and stochasticity in the TO problem to generate robust motions can easily lead to intractable problems. Furthermore, since the models used in TO have always some level of abstraction, it can be hard to find a realistic set of uncertainties in the model space. In this paper we leverage a sample-efficient learning technique (Bayesian optimization) to robustify TO for humanoid locomotion. The main idea is to use data from full-body simulations to make the TO stage robust by tuning the cost weights. To this end, we split the TO problem into two phases. The first phase solves a convex optimization problem for generating center of mass (CoM) trajectories based on simplified linear dynamics. The second stage employs iterative Linear-Quadratic Gaussian (iLQG) as a whole-body controller to generate full body control inputs. Then we use Bayesian optimization to find the cost weights to use in the first stage that yields robust performance in the simulation/experiment, in the presence of different disturbance/uncertainties. The results show that the proposed approach is able to generate robust motions for different sets of disturbances and uncertainties.

mg

https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.04616 [BibTex]

https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.04616 [BibTex]


no image
Effects of system response delays on elderly humans’ cognitive performance in a virtual training scenario

Wirzberger, M., Schmidt, R., Georgi, M., Hardt, W., Brunnett, G., Rey, G. D.

Scientific Reports, 9:8291, 2019 (article)

Abstract
Observed influences of system response delay in spoken human-machine dialogues are rather ambiguous and mainly focus on perceived system quality. Studies that systematically inspect effects on cognitive performance are still lacking, and effects of individual characteristics are also often neglected. Building on benefits of cognitive training for decelerating cognitive decline, this Wizard-of-Oz study addresses both issues by testing 62 elderly participants in a dialogue-based memory training with a virtual agent. Participants acquired the method of loci with fading instructional guidance and applied it afterward to memorizing and recalling lists of German nouns. System response delays were randomly assigned, and training performance was included as potential mediator. Participants’ age, gender, and subscales of affinity for technology (enthusiasm, competence, positive and negative perception of technology) were inspected as potential moderators. The results indicated positive effects on recall performance with higher training performance, female gender, and less negative perception of technology. Additionally, memory retention and facets of affinity for technology moderated increasing system response delays. Participants also provided higher ratings in perceived system quality with higher enthusiasm for technology but reported increasing frustration with a more positive perception of technology. Potential explanations and implications for the design of spoken dialogue systems are discussed.

re

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


no image
A meta-analysis of the segmenting effect

Rey, G. D., Beege, M., Nebel, S., Wirzberger, M., Schmitt, T., Schneider, S.

Educational Psychology Review, 2019 (article)

Abstract
The segmenting effect states that people learn better when multimedia instructions are presented in (meaningful and coherent) learner-paced segments, rather than as continuous units. This meta-analysis contains 56 investigations including 88 pairwise comparisons and reveals a significant segmenting effect with small to medium effects for retention and transfer performance. Segmentation also reduces the overall cognitive load and increases learning time. These four effects are confirmed for a system-paced segmentation. The meta-analysis tests different explanations for the segmenting effect that concern facilitating chunking and structuring due to segmenting the multimedia instruction by the instructional designer, providing more time for processing the instruction and allowing the learners to adapt the presentation pace to their individual needs. Moderation analyses indicate that learners with high prior knowledge benefitted more from segmenting instructional material than learners with no or low prior knowledge in terms of retention performance.

re

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


no image
A rational reinterpretation of dual process theories

Milli, S., Lieder, F., Griffiths, T.

2019 (article)

re

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2007


no image
Hand placement during quadruped locomotion in a humanoid robot: A dynamical system approach

Degallier, S., Righetti, L., Ijspeert, A.

In 2007 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pages: 2047-2052, IEEE, San Diego, USA, 2007 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Locomotion on an irregular surface is a challenging task in robotics. Among different problems to solve to obtain robust locomotion, visually guided locomotion and accurate foot placement are of crucial importance. Robust controllers able to adapt to sensory-motor feedbacks, in particular to properly place feet on specific locations, are thus needed. Dynamical systems are well suited for this task as any online modification of the parameters leads to a smooth adaptation of the trajectories, allowing a safe integration of sensory-motor feedback. In this contribution, as a first step in the direction of locomotion on irregular surfaces, we present a controller that allows hand placement during crawling in a simulated humanoid robot. The goal of the controller is to superimpose rhythmic movements for crawling with discrete (i.e. short-term) modulations of the hand placements to reach specific marks on the ground.

mg

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

2007


link (url) DOI [BibTex]


no image
Lower body realization of the baby humanoid - ‘iCub’

Tsagarakis, N., Becchi, F., Righetti, L., Ijspeert, A., Caldwell, D.

In 2007 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pages: 3616-3622, IEEE, San Diego, USA, 2007 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Nowadays, the understanding of the human cognition and it application to robotic systems forms a great challenge of research. The iCub is a robotic platform that was developed within the RobotCub European project to provide the cognition research community with an open baby- humanoid platform for understanding and development of cognitive systems. In this paper we present the design requirements and mechanical realization of the lower body developed for the "iCub". In particular the leg and the waist mechanisms adopted for lower body to match the size and physical abilities of a 2 frac12 year old human baby are introduced.

mg

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


no image
iCub - The Design and Realization of an Open Humanoid Platform for Cognitive and Neuroscience Research

Tsagarakis, N., Metta, G., Sandini, G., Vernon, D., Beira, R., Becchi, F., Righetti, L., Santos-Victor, J., Ijspeert, A., Carrozza, M., Caldwell, D.

Advanced Robotics, 21(10):1151-1175, 2007 (article)

Abstract
The development of robotic cognition and the advancement of understanding of human cognition form two of the current greatest challenges in robotics and neuroscience, respectively. The RobotCub project aims to develop an embodied robotic child (iCub) with the physical (height 90 cm and mass less than 23 kg) and ultimately cognitive abilities of a 2.5-year-old human child. The iCub will be a freely available open system which can be used by scientists in all cognate disciplines from developmental psychology to epigenetic robotics to enhance understanding of cognitive systems through the study of cognitive development. The iCub will be open both in software, but more importantly in all aspects of the hardware and mechanical design. In this paper the design of the mechanisms and structures forming the basic 'body' of the iCub are described. The papers considers kinematic structures dynamic design criteria, actuator specification and selection, and detailed mechanical and electronic design. The paper concludes with tests of the performance of sample joints, and comparison of these results with the design requirements and simulation projects.

mg

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]