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2015


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Quantifying changes in climate variability and extremes: Pitfalls and their overcoming

Sippel, S., Zscheischler, J., Heimann, M., Otto, F. E. L., Peters, J., Mahecha, M. D.

Geophysical Research Letters, 42(22):9990-9998, November 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

2015


DOI [BibTex]


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Diversity of sharp wave-ripple LFP signatures reveals differentiated brain-wide dynamical events

Ramirez-Villegas, J. F., Logothetis, N. K., Besserve, M.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A, 112(46):E6379-E6387, November 2015 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Reducing Student Anonymity and Increasing Engagement

Kuchenbecker, K. J.

University of Pennsylvania Almanac, 62(18):8, November 2015 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Noise masking of White’s illusion exposes the weakness of current spatial filtering models of lightness perception

Betz, T., Shapley, R. M., Wichmann, F. A., Maertens, M.

Journal of Vision, 15(14):1-17, October 2015 (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Surgeons and Non-Surgeons Prefer Haptic Feedback of Instrument Vibrations During Robotic Surgery

Koehn, J. K., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Surgical Endoscopy, 29(10):2970-2983, October 2015 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Displaying Sensed Tactile Cues with a Fingertip Haptic Device

Pacchierotti, C., Prattichizzo, D., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 8(4):384-396, October 2015 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Shifts of Gamma Phase across Primary Visual Cortical Sites Reflect Dynamic Stimulus-Modulated Information Transfer

Besserve, M., Lowe, S. C., Logothetis, N. K., Schölkopf, B., Panzeri, S.

PLOS Biology, 13(9):e1002257, September 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Semi-Supervised Interpolation in an Anticausal Learning Scenario

Janzing, D., Schölkopf, B.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 16, pages: 1923-1948, September 2015 (article)

ei

link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Testing the role of luminance edges in White’s illusion with contour adaptation

Betz, T., Shapley, R. M., Wichmann, F. A., Maertens, M.

Journal of Vision, 15(11):1-16, August 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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A thin film active-lens with translational control for dynamically programmable optical zoom

Yun, S., Park, S., Park, B., Nam, S., Park, S. K., Kyung, K.

Applied Physics Letters, 107(8):081907, AIP Publishing, August 2015 (article)

Abstract
We demonstrate a thin film active-lens for rapidly and dynamically controllable optical zoom. The active-lens is composed of a convex hemispherical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lens structure working as an aperture and a dielectric elastomer (DE) membrane actuator, which is a combination of a thin DE layer made with PDMS and a compliant electrode pattern using silver-nanowires. The active-lens is capable of dynamically changing focal point of the soft aperture as high as 18.4% through its translational movement in vertical direction responding to electrically induced bulged-up deformation of the DE membrane actuator. Under operation with various sinusoidal voltage signals, the movement responses are fairly consistent with those estimated from numerical simulation. The responses are not only fast, fairly reversible, and highly durable during continuous cyclic operations, but also large enough to impart dynamic focus tunability for optical zoom in microscopic imaging devices with a light-weight and ultra-slim configuration.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Data-Driven Motion Mappings Improve Transparency in Teleoperation

Khurshid, R. P., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 24(2):132-154, May 2015 (article)

hi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Blind multirigid retrospective motion correction of MR images

Loktyushin, A., Nickisch, H., Pohmann, R., Schölkopf, B.

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 73(4):1457-1468, April 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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A quantum advantage for inferring causal structure

Ried, K., Agnew, M., Vermeyden, L., Janzing, D., Spekkens, R. W., Resch, K. J.

Nature Physics, 11(5):414-420, March 2015 (article)

Abstract
The problem of inferring causal relations from observed correlations is relevant to a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Yet given the correlations between just two classical variables, it is impossible to determine whether they arose from a causal influence of one on the other or a common cause influencing both. Only a randomized trial can settle the issue. Here we consider the problem of causal inference for quantum variables. We show that the analogue of a randomized trial, causal tomography, yields a complete solution. We also show that, in contrast to the classical case, one can sometimes infer the causal structure from observations alone. We implement a quantum-optical experiment wherein we control the causal relation between two optical modes, and two measurement schemes—with and without randomization—that extract this relation from the observed correlations. Our results show that entanglement and quantum coherence provide an advantage for causal inference.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Robotic Learning of Haptic Adjectives Through Physical Interaction

Chu, V., McMahon, I., Riano, L., McDonald, C. G., He, Q., Perez-Tejada, J. M., Arrigo, M., Darrell, T., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 63(3):279-292, 2015, Vivian Chu, Ian MacMahon, and Lorenzo Riano contributed equally to this publication. Corrigendum published in June 2016 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Effects of Vibrotactile Feedback on Human Motor Learning of Arbitrary Arm Motions

Bark, K., Hyman, E., Tan, F., Cha, E., Jax, S. A., Buxbaum, L. J., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 23(1):51-63, January 2015 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Positive definite matrices and the S-divergence

Sra, S.

Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, 2015, Published electronically: October 22, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Structural Intervention Distance (SID) for Evaluating Causal Graphs

Peters, J., Bühlmann, P.

Neural Computation , 27(3):771-799, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Likelihood and Consilience: On Forster’s Counterexamples to the Likelihood Theory of Evidence

Zhang, J., Zhang, K.

Philosophy of Science, Supplementary Volume 2015, 82(5):930-940, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Crowdsourced analysis of clinical trial data to predict amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression

Küffner, R., Zach, N., Norel, R., Hawe, J., Schoenfeld, D., Wang, L., Li, G., Fang, L., Mackey, L., Hardiman, O., Cudkowicz, M., Sherman, A., Ertaylan, G., Grosse-Wentrup, M., Hothorn, T., van Ligtenberg, J., Macke, J., Meyer, T., Schölkopf, B., Tran, L., Vaughan, R., Stolovitzky, G., Leitner, M.

Nature Biotechnology, 33, pages: 51-57, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Probabilistic Interpretation of Linear Solvers

Hennig, P.

SIAM Journal on Optimization, 25(1):234-260, 2015 (article)

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Web PDF link (url) DOI [BibTex]

Web PDF link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Developing biorobotics for veterinary research into cat movements

Mariti, C., Muscolo, G., Peters, J., Puig, D., Recchiuto, C., Sighieri, C., Solanas, A., von Stryk, O.

Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 10(3):248-254, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Spatial statistics and attentional dynamics in scene viewing

Engbert, R., Trukenbrod, H., Barthelmé, S., Wichmann, F.

Journal of Vision, 15(1):1-17, 2015 (article)

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Web PDF link (url) DOI [BibTex]

Web PDF link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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The Randomized Causation Coefficient

Lopez-Paz, D., Muandet, K., Recht, B.

Journal of Machine Learning, 16, pages: 2901-2907, 2015 (article)

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link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Towards denoising XMCD movies of fast magnetization dynamics using extended Kalman filter

Kopp, M., Harmeling, S., Schütz, G., Schölkopf, B., Fähnle, M.

Ultramicroscopy, 148, pages: 115-122, 2015 (article)

Abstract
The Kalman filter is a well-established approach to get information on the time-dependent state of a system from noisy observations. It was developed in the context of the Apollo project to see the deviation of the true trajectory of a rocket from the desired trajectory. Afterwards it was applied to many different systems with small numbers of components of the respective state vector (typically about 10). In all cases the equation of motion for the state vector was known exactly. The fast dissipative magnetization dynamics is often investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism movies (XMCD movies), which are often very noisy. In this situation the number of components of the state vector is extremely large (about 105), and the equation of motion for the dissipative magnetization dynamics (especially the values of the material parameters of this equation) is not well known. In the present paper it is shown by theoretical considerations that – nevertheless – there is no principle problem for the use of the Kalman filter to denoise XMCD movies of fast dissipative magnetization dynamics.

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Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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Artificial intelligence: Learning to see and act

Schölkopf, B.

Nature, News & Views, 518(7540):486-487, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Context affects lightness at the level of surfaces

Maertens, M., Wichmann, F., Shapley, R.

Journal of Vision, 15(1):1-15, 2015 (article)

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Web PDF link (url) DOI [BibTex]

Web PDF link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Genome-wide analysis of local chromatin packing in Arabidopsis thaliana

Wang, C., Liu, C., Roqueiro, D., Grimm, D., Schwab, R., Becker, C., Lanz, C., Weigel, D.

Genome Research, 25(2):246-256, 2015 (article)

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PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Segmentation-based attenuation correction in positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance: erroneous tissue identification and its impact on positron emission tomography interpretation

Brendle, C., Schmidt, H., Oergel, A., Bezrukov, I., Mueller, M., Schraml, C., Pfannenberg, C., la Fougère, C., Nikolaou, K., Schwenzer, N.

Investigative Radiology, 50(5):339-346, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Isosteric heat of hydrogen adsorption on MOFs: comparison between adsorption calorimetry, sorption isosteric metod, and analytical models

Kloutse, A. F., Zacharia, R., Cossement, D., Chahine, R., Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R., Oh, H., Streppel, B., Schlichtenmayer, M., Hirscher, M.

{Applied Physics A}, 121(4):1417-1424, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Active Reward Learning with a Novel Acquisition Function

Daniel, C., Kroemer, O., Viering, M., Metz, J., Peters, J.

Autonomous Robots, 39(3):389-405, 2015 (article)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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A systematic search for transiting planets in the K2 data

Foreman-Mackey, D., Montet, B., Hogg, D., Morton, T., Wang, D., Schölkopf, B.

The Astrophysical Journal, 806(2), 2015 (article)

Abstract
Photometry of stars from the K2 extension of NASA’s Kepler mission is afflicted by systematic effects caused by small (few-pixel) drifts in the telescope pointing and other spacecraft issues. We present a method for searching K2 light curves for evidence of exoplanets by simultaneously fitting for these systematics and the transit signals of interest. This method is more computationally expensive than standard search algorithms but we demonstrate that it can be efficiently implemented and used to discover transit signals. We apply this method to the full Campaign 1 data set and report a list of 36 planet candidates transiting 31 stars, along with an analysis of the pipeline performance and detection efficiency based on artificial signal injections and recoveries. For all planet candidates, we present posterior distributions on the properties of each system based strictly on the transit observables.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Learning Movement Primitive Attractor Goals and Sequential Skills from Kinesthetic Demonstrations

Manschitz, S., Kober, J., Gienger, M., Peters, J.

Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 74, Part A, pages: 97-107, 2015 (article)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Bayesian Optimization for Learning Gaits under Uncertainty

Calandra, R., Seyfarth, A., Peters, J., Deisenroth, M.

Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, pages: 1-19, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Assessment of murine brain tissue shrinkage caused by different histological fixatives using magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging

Wehrl, H. F., Bezrukov, I., Wiehr, S., Lehnhoff, M., Fuchs, K., Mannheim, J. G., Quintanilla-Martinez, L., Kneilling, M., Pichler, B. J., Sauter, A. W.

Histology and Histopathology, 30(5):601-613, 2015 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Improved Bayesian Information Criterion for Mixture Model Selection

Mehrjou, A., Hosseini, R., Araabi, B.

Pattern Recognition Letters, 69, pages: 22-27, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Correlation matrix nearness and completion under observation uncertainty

Alaíz, C. M., Dinuzzo, F., Sra, S.

IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis, 35(1):325-340, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Quantitative evaluation of segmentation- and atlas- based attenuation correction for PET/MR on pediatric patients

Bezrukov, I., Schmidt, H., Gatidis, S., Mantlik, F., Schäfer, J. F., Schwenzer, N., Pichler, B. J.

Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 56(7):1067-1074, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Probabilistic numerics and uncertainty in computations

Hennig, P., Osborne, M. A., Girolami, M.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 471(2179), 2015 (article)

Abstract
We deliver a call to arms for probabilistic numerical methods: algorithms for numerical tasks, including linear algebra, integration, optimization and solving differential equations, that return uncertainties in their calculations. Such uncertainties, arising from the loss of precision induced by numerical calculation with limited time or hardware, are important for much contemporary science and industry. Within applications such as climate science and astrophysics, the need to make decisions on the basis of computations with large and complex data have led to a renewed focus on the management of numerical uncertainty. We describe how several seminal classic numerical methods can be interpreted naturally as probabilistic inference. We then show that the probabilistic view suggests new algorithms that can flexibly be adapted to suit application specifics, while delivering improved empirical performance. We provide concrete illustrations of the benefits of probabilistic numeric algorithms on real scientific problems from astrometry and astronomical imaging, while highlighting open problems with these new algorithms. Finally, we describe how probabilistic numerical methods provide a coherent framework for identifying the uncertainty in calculations performed with a combination of numerical algorithms (e.g. both numerical optimizers and differential equation solvers), potentially allowing the diagnosis (and control) of error sources in computations.

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PDF DOI [BibTex]

PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Mass and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

Melchior, P., Suchyta, E., Huff, E., Hirsch, M., Kacprzak, T., Rykoff, E., Gruen, D., Armstrong, R., Bacon, D., Bechtol, K., others,

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 449(3):2219-2238, Oxford University Press, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Time-resolved imaging of pulse-induced magnetization reversal with a microwave assist field

Rao, S., Rhensius, J., Bisig, A., Mawass, M.-A., Weigand, M., Kläui, M., Bhatia, C. S., Yang, H.

{Scientific Reports}, 5, Nature Publishing Group, London, UK, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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XMCD studies of thin Co films on BaTiO3

Welke, M., Gräfe, J., Govind, R. K., Babu, V. H., Trautmann, M., Schindler, K., Denecke, R.

{Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter}, 27(32), IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Low temperature X-ray imaging of magnetic flux patterns in high temperature superconductors

Stahl, C., Ruoß, S., Weigand, M., Bechtel, M., Schütz, G., Albrecht, J.

{Journal of Applied Physics}, 117(17), AIP Publishing, New York, NY, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Formation of a quasi-solid structure by intercalated noble gas atoms in pores of CuI-MFU-4l metal-organic framework

Magdysyuk, O. V., Denysenko, D., Weinrauch, I., Volkmer, D., Hirscher, M., Dinnebier, R. E.

{Chemical Communications}, 51(4):714-717, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Burst-mode manipulation of magnonic vortex crystals

Hänze, M., Adolff, C. F., Weigand, M., Meier, G.

{Physical Review B}, 91(10), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Entropic Movement Complexity Reflects Subjective Creativity Rankings of Visualized Hand Motion Trajectories

Peng, Z, Braun, DA

Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1879):1-13, December 2015 (article)

Abstract
In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate 55 novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated 10 times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Bounded rationality, abstraction and hierarchical decision-making: an information-theoretic optimality principle

Genewein, T, Leibfried, F, Grau-Moya, J, Braun, DA

Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 2(27):1-24, October 2015 (article)

Abstract
Abstraction and hierarchical information-processing are hallmarks of human and animal intelligence underlying the unrivaled flexibility of behavior in biological systems. Achieving such a flexibility in artificial systems is challenging, even with more and more computational power. Here we investigate the hypothesis that abstraction and hierarchical information-processing might in fact be the consequence of limitations in information-processing power. In particular, we study an information-theoretic framework of bounded rational decision-making that trades off utility maximization against information-processing costs. We apply the basic principle of this framework to perception-action systems with multiple information-processing nodes and derive bounded optimal solutions. We show how the formation of abstractions and decision-making hierarchies depends on information-processing costs. We illustrate the theoretical ideas with example simulations and conclude by formalizing a mathematically unifying optimization principle that could potentially be extended to more complex systems.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Fabrication and X-ray testing of true kinoform lenses with high efficiencies

Keskinbora, K., Sanli, U., Grévent, C., Schütz, G.

{Proceedings of SPIE}, 9592, SPIE, Bellingham, Washington, 2015 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]