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Molecular QED of coherent and incoherent sum-frequency and second-harmonic generation in chiral liquids in the presence of a static electric field

Fischer, P., Salam, A.

MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 108(14):1857-1868, 2010 (article)

Coherent second-order nonlinear optical processes are symmetry forbidden in centrosymmetric environments in the electric-dipole approximation. In liquids that contain chiral molecules, however, and which therefore lack mirror image symmetry, coherent sum-frequency generation is possible, whereas second-harmonic generation remains forbidden. Here we apply the theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics to the calculation of the matrix element, transition rate, and integrated signal intensity for sum-frequency and second-harmonic generation taking place in a chiral liquid in the presence and absence of a static electric field, to examine which coherent and incoherent processes exist in the electric-dipole approximation in liquids. Third- and fourth-order time-dependent perturbation theory is employed in combination with single-sided Feynman diagrams to evaluate two contributions arising from static field-free and field-induced processes. It is found that, in addition to the coherent term, an incoherent process exists for sum-frequency generation in liquids. Surprisingly, in the case of dc-field-induced second-harmonic generation, the incoherent contribution is found to always vanish for isotropic chiral liquids even though hyper-Rayleigh second-harmonic generation and electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation are both independently symmetry allowed in any liquid.


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