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2020


3D Morphable Face Models - Past, Present and Future
3D Morphable Face Models - Past, Present and Future

Egger, B., Smith, W. A. P., Tewari, A., Wuhrer, S., Zollhoefer, M., Beeler, T., Bernard, F., Bolkart, T., Kortylewski, A., Romdhani, S., Theobalt, C., Blanz, V., Vetter, T.

ACM Transactions on Graphics, September 2020 (article)

Abstract
In this paper, we provide a detailed survey of 3D Morphable Face Models over the 20 years since they were first proposed. The challenges in building and applying these models, namely capture, modeling, image formation, and image analysis, are still active research topics, and we review the state-of-the-art in each of these areas. We also look ahead, identifying unsolved challenges, proposing directions for future research and highlighting the broad range of current and future applications.

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project page pdf preprint [BibTex]

2020


project page pdf preprint [BibTex]


Interface-mediated spontaneous symmetry breaking and mutual communication between drops containing chemically active particles
Interface-mediated spontaneous symmetry breaking and mutual communication between drops containing chemically active particles

Singh, D., Domínguez, A., Choudhury, U., Kottapalli, S., Popescu, M., Dietrich, S., Fischer, P.

Nature Communications, 11(2210), May 2020 (article)

Abstract
Symmetry breaking and the emergence of self-organized patterns is the hallmark of com- plexity. Here, we demonstrate that a sessile drop, containing titania powder particles with negligible self-propulsion, exhibits a transition to collective motion leading to self-organized flow patterns. This phenomenology emerges through a novel mechanism involving the interplay between the chemical activity of the photocatalytic particles, which induces Mar- angoni stresses at the liquid–liquid interface, and the geometrical confinement provided by the drop. The response of the interface to the chemical activity of the particles is the source of a significantly amplified hydrodynamic flow within the drop, which moves the particles. Furthermore, in ensembles of such active drops long-ranged ordering of the flow patterns within the drops is observed. We show that the ordering is dictated by a chemical com- munication between drops, i.e., an alignment of the flow patterns is induced by the gradients of the chemicals emanating from the active particles, rather than by hydrodynamic interactions.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


General Movement Assessment from videos of computed {3D} infant body models is equally effective compared to conventional {RGB} Video rating
General Movement Assessment from videos of computed 3D infant body models is equally effective compared to conventional RGB Video rating

Schroeder, S., Hesse, N., Weinberger, R., Tacke, U., Gerstl, L., Hilgendorff, A., Heinen, F., Arens, M., Bodensteiner, C., Dijkstra, L. J., Pujades, S., Black, M., Hadders-Algra, M.

Early Human Development, 144, May 2020 (article)

Abstract
Background: General Movement Assessment (GMA) is a powerful tool to predict Cerebral Palsy (CP). Yet, GMA requires substantial training hampering its implementation in clinical routine. This inspired a world-wide quest for automated GMA. Aim: To test whether a low-cost, marker-less system for three-dimensional motion capture from RGB depth sequences using a whole body infant model may serve as the basis for automated GMA. Study design: Clinical case study at an academic neurodevelopmental outpatient clinic. Subjects: Twenty-nine high-risk infants were recruited and assessed at their clinical follow-up at 2-4 month corrected age (CA). Their neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed regularly up to 12-31 months CA. Outcome measures: GMA according to Hadders-Algra by a masked GMA-expert of conventional and computed 3D body model (“SMIL motion”) videos of the same GMs. Agreement between both GMAs was assessed, and sensitivity and specificity of both methods to predict CP at ≥12 months CA. Results: The agreement of the two GMA ratings was substantial, with κ=0.66 for the classification of definitely abnormal (DA) GMs and an ICC of 0.887 (95% CI 0.762;0.947) for a more detailed GM-scoring. Five children were diagnosed with CP (four bilateral, one unilateral CP). The GMs of the child with unilateral CP were twice rated as mildly abnormal. DA-ratings of both videos predicted bilateral CP well: sensitivity 75% and 100%, specificity 88% and 92% for conventional and SMIL motion videos, respectively. Conclusions: Our computed infant 3D full body model is an attractive starting point for automated GMA in infants at risk of CP.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Automatic Discovery of Interpretable Planning Strategies

Skirzyński, J., Becker, F., Lieder, F.

May 2020 (article) Submitted

Abstract
When making decisions, people often overlook critical information or are overly swayed by irrelevant information. A common approach to mitigate these biases is to provide decisionmakers, especially professionals such as medical doctors, with decision aids, such as decision trees and flowcharts. Designing effective decision aids is a difficult problem. We propose that recently developed reinforcement learning methods for discovering clever heuristics for good decision-making can be partially leveraged to assist human experts in this design process. One of the biggest remaining obstacles to leveraging the aforementioned methods for improving human decision-making is that the policies they learn are opaque to people. To solve this problem, we introduce AI-Interpret: a general method for transforming idiosyncratic policies into simple and interpretable descriptions. Our algorithm combines recent advances in imitation learning and program induction with a new clustering method for identifying a large subset of demonstrations that can be accurately described by a simple, high-performing decision rule. We evaluate our new AI-Interpret algorithm and employ it to translate information-acquisition policies discovered through metalevel reinforcement learning. The results of three large behavioral experiments showed that the provision of decision rules as flowcharts significantly improved people’s planning strategies and decisions across three different classes of sequential decision problems. Furthermore, a series of ablation studies confirmed that our AI-Interpret algorithm was critical to the discovery of interpretable decision rules and that it is ready to be applied to other reinforcement learning problems. We conclude that the methods and findings presented in this article are an important step towards leveraging automatic strategy discovery to improve human decision-making.

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Automatic Discovery of Interpretable Planning Strategies The code for our algorithm and the experiments is available [BibTex]


Learning Multi-Human Optical Flow
Learning Multi-Human Optical Flow

Ranjan, A., Hoffmann, D. T., Tzionas, D., Tang, S., Romero, J., Black, M. J.

International Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV), (128):873-890, April 2020 (article)

Abstract
The optical flow of humans is well known to be useful for the analysis of human action. Recent optical flow methods focus on training deep networks to approach the problem. However, the training data used by them does not cover the domain of human motion. Therefore, we develop a dataset of multi-human optical flow and train optical flow networks on this dataset. We use a 3D model of the human body and motion capture data to synthesize realistic flow fields in both single-and multi-person images. We then train optical flow networks to estimate human flow fields from pairs of images. We demonstrate that our trained networks are more accurate than a wide range of top methods on held-out test data and that they can generalize well to real image sequences. The code, trained models and the dataset are available for research.

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Paper Publisher Version poster link (url) DOI [BibTex]

Paper Publisher Version poster link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Advancing Rational Analysis to the Algorithmic Level

Lieder, F., Griffiths, T. L.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 43, E27, March 2020 (article)

Abstract
The commentaries raised questions about normativity, human rationality, cognitive architectures, cognitive constraints, and the scope or resource rational analysis (RRA). We respond to these questions and clarify that RRA is a methodological advance that extends the scope of rational modeling to understanding cognitive processes, why they differ between people, why they change over time, and how they could be improved.

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Advancing rational analysis to the algorithmic level DOI [BibTex]

Advancing rational analysis to the algorithmic level DOI [BibTex]


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Learning to Overexert Cognitive Control in a Stroop Task

Bustamante, L., Lieder, F., Musslick, S., Shenhav, A., Cohen, J.

Febuary 2020, Laura Bustamante and Falk Lieder contributed equally to this publication. (article) In revision

Abstract
How do people learn when to allocate how much cognitive control to which task? According to the Learned Value of Control (LVOC) model, people learn to predict the value of alternative control allocations from features of a given situation. This suggests that people may generalize the value of control learned in one situation to other situations with shared features, even when the demands for cognitive control are different. This makes the intriguing prediction that what a person learned in one setting could, under some circumstances, cause them to misestimate the need for, and potentially over-exert control in another setting, even if this harms their performance. To test this prediction, we had participants perform a novel variant of the Stroop task in which, on each trial, they could choose to either name the color (more control-demanding) or read the word (more automatic). However only one of these tasks was rewarded, it changed from trial to trial, and could be predicted by one or more of the stimulus features (the color and/or the word). Participants first learned colors that predicted the rewarded task. Then they learned words that predicted the rewarded task. In the third part of the experiment, we tested how these learned feature associations transferred to novel stimuli with some overlapping features. The stimulus-task-reward associations were designed so that for certain combinations of stimuli the transfer of learned feature associations would incorrectly predict that more highly rewarded task would be color naming, which would require the exertion of control, even though the actually rewarded task was word reading and therefore did not require the engagement of control. Our results demonstrated that participants over-exerted control for these stimuli, providing support for the feature-based learning mechanism described by the LVOC model.

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Learning to Overexert Cognitive Control in a Stroop Task DOI [BibTex]

Learning to Overexert Cognitive Control in a Stroop Task DOI [BibTex]


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Real Time Trajectory Prediction Using Deep Conditional Generative Models

Gomez-Gonzalez, S., Prokudin, S., Schölkopf, B., Peters, J.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 5(2):970-976, IEEE, January 2020 (article)

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arXiv DOI [BibTex]

arXiv DOI [BibTex]


Toward a Formal Theory of Proactivity
Toward a Formal Theory of Proactivity

Lieder, F., Iwama, G.

January 2020 (article) Submitted

Abstract
Beyond merely reacting to their environment and impulses, people have the remarkable capacity to proactively set and pursue their own goals. But the extent to which they leverage this capacity varies widely across people and situations. The goal of this article is to make the mechanisms and variability of proactivity more amenable to rigorous experiments and computational modeling. We proceed in three steps. First, we develop and validate a mathematically precise behavioral measure of proactivity and reactivity that can be applied across a wide range of experimental paradigms. Second, we propose a formal definition of proactivity and reactivity, and develop a computational model of proactivity in the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT). Third, we develop and test a computational-level theory of meta-control over proactivity in the AX-CPT that identifies three distinct meta-decision-making problems: intention setting, resolving response conflict between intentions and automaticity, and deciding whether to recall context and intentions into working memory. People's response frequencies in the AX-CPT were remarkably well captured by a mixture between the predictions of our models of proactive and reactive control. Empirical data from an experiment varying the incentives and contextual load of an AX-CPT confirmed the predictions of our meta-control model of individual differences in proactivity. Our results suggest that proactivity can be understood in terms of computational models of meta-control. Our model makes additional empirically testable predictions. Future work will extend our models from proactive control in the AX-CPT to proactive goal creation and goal pursuit in the real world.

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Toward a formal theory of proactivity DOI [BibTex]


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Axisymmetric spheroidal squirmers and self-diffusiophoretic particles

Pöhnl, R., Popescu, M. N., Uspal, W. E.

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 32(16), IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Tracer diffusion on a crowded random Manhattan lattice

Mej\’\ia-Monasterio, C., Nechaev, S., Oshanin, G., Vasilyev, O.

New Journal of Physics, 22(3), IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Wetting transitions on soft substrates

Napiorkowski, M., Schimmele, L., Dietrich, S.

{EPL}, 129(1), EDP Science, Les-Ulis, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Blessing and Curse: How a Supercapacitor Large Capacitance Causes its Slow Charging

Lian, C., Janssen, M., Liu, H., van Roij, R.

Physical Review Letters, 124(7), American Physical Society, Woodbury, N.Y., 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Interplay of quenching temperature and drift in Brownian dynamics

Khalilian, H., Nejad, M. R., Moghaddam, A. G., Rohwer, C. M.

EPL, 128(6), EDP Science, Les-Ulis, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Fractal-seaweeds type functionalization of graphene

Amsharov, K., Sharapa, D. I., Vasilyev, O. A., Martin, O., Hauke, F., Görling, A., Soni, H., Hirsch, A.

Carbon, 158, pages: 435-448, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Effective pair interaction of patchy particles in critical fluids

Farahmand Bafi, N., Nowakowski, P., Dietrich, S.

The Journal of Chemical Physics, 152(11), American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, N.Y., 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Cassie-Wenzel transition of a binary liquid mixture on a nanosculptured surface

Singh, S. L., Schimmele, L., Dietrich, S.

Physical Review E, 101(5), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Energy storage in steady states under cyclic local energy input

Zhang, Y., Holyst, R., Maciolek, A.

Physical Review E, 101(1), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Numerical simulations of self-diffusiophoretic colloids at fluid interfaces

Peter, T., Malgaretti, P., Rivas, N., Scagliarini, A., Harting, J., Dietrich, S.

Soft Matter, 16(14):3536-3547, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2009


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Interplay of complete wetting, critical adsorption, and capillary condensation

Drzewinski, A., Maciolek, A., Barasinski, A., Dietrich, S.

Physical Review E, 79, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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The critical Casimir effect: universal fluctuation-induced forces at work

Gambassi, A., Hertlein, C., Helden, L., Dietrich, S., Bechinger, C.

Europhysics News, 40(01):18-22, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Effective interactions of colloids on nematic films

Oettel, M., Dominguez, A., Tasinkevych, M., Dietrich, S.

European Physical Journal E, 28(02):99-111, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Self-diffusion and cooperative diffusion in semidilute polymer solutions as measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

Zettl, U., Hoffmann, S. T., Koberling, F., Krausch, G., Enderlein, J., Harnau, L., Ballauff, M.

Macromolecules, 42, pages: 9537-9547, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Free-energy function based on an all-atom model for proteins

Yoshidome, T., Oda, K., Harano, Y., Roth, R., Sugita, Y., Ikeguchi, M., Kinoshita, M.

Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 77(4):950-961, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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On scale-free and poly-scale behaviors of random hierarchical networks

Avetisov, V. A., Chertovitch, A. V., Nechaev, S .K., Vasilyev, O. A.

Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, July 2009, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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3D Brownian diffusion of submicron-sized particle clusters

Hoffmann, M., Wagner, C. S., Harnau, L., Wittemann, A.

ACS Nano, 3(10):3326-3334, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Normal and lateral critical Casimir forces between colloids and patterned substrates

Tröndle, M., Kondrat, S., Gambassi, A., Harnau, L., Dietrich, S.

EPL, 88, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Critical wetting transitions in two-dimensional systems subject to long-ranged boundary fields

Drzewinski, A., Maciolek, A., Barasinski, A., Dietrich, S.

Physical Review E, 79, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Derivation of a non-local interfacial model for 3D wetting in an external field

Bernardino, N. R., Parry, A. O., Rascon, C., Romero-Enrique, J. M.

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 21(46), 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Coupling of rotational motion with shape fluctuations of core-shell microgels having tunable softness

Bolisetty, S., Hoffmann, M., Lekkala, S., Hellweg, T., Ballauff, M., Harnau, L.

Macromolecules, 42, pages: 1264-1269, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Strong-disorder paramagnetic-ferromagnetic fixed point in the square-lattice +/-J Ising model

Parisen Toldin, F., Pelissetto, A., Vicari, E.

Journal of Statistical Physics, 135(5):1039-1061, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Structure and interaction of flexible dendrimers in concentrated solution

Rosenfeldt, S., Ballauff, M., Lindner, P., Harnau, L.

The Journal of Chemical Physics, 130, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Layering of (BMIM)+-based ionic liquids at a charged sapphire interface

Mezger, M., Schramm, S., Schröder, H., Reichert, H., Deutsch, M., de Souza, E. J., Okasinski, J. S., Ocko, B. M., Honkimäki, V., Dosch, H.

Journal of Chemical Physics, 131, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Nano-droplets on structured substrates

Rauscher, M. A., Dietrich, S.

Soft Matter, 5(16):2997-3001, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Self-assembly of Janus cylinders into hierarchical superstructures

Walther, A., Drechsler, M., Rosenfeldt, S., Harnau, L., Ballauff, M., Abetz, V., Müller, A. H. E.

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131, pages: 4720-4728, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Solvent-mediated interactions between nanoparticles at fluid interfaces

Bresme, F., Lehle, H., Oettel, M.

Journal of Chemical Physics, 130(21), 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Diffusion of a sphere in a dilute solution of polymer coils

Krüger, M., Rauscher, M.

Journal of Chemical Physics, 131(9), 2009 (article)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Dynamics of nanodroplets on topographically structured substrates

Moosavi, A., Rauscher, M., Dietrich, S.

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 21(46), 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Critical Casimir effect in classical binary liquid mixtures

Gambassi, A., Maciolek, A., Hertlein, C., Nellen, U., Helden, L., Bechinger, C., Dietrich, S.

Physical Review E, 80, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Phase transitions and ordering of confined dipolar fluids

Szalai, I., Dietrich, S.

European Physical Journal E, 28(3):347-359, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Nonlinear dielectric effect of dipolar fluids

Szalai, I., Nagy, S., Dietrich, S.

Journal of Chemical Physics, 131(15), 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Some physical applications of random hierarchical matrices

Avetisov, V. A., Bikulov, A. K., Vasilyev, O. A., Nechaev, S. K., Chertovich, A. V.

Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, 109(3):485-504, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Interaction of cylindrical polymer brushes in dilute and semi-dilute solution

Bolisetty, S., Rosenfeldt, S., Rochette, C. N., Harnau, L., Lindner, P., Xu, Y., Mueller, A. H. E., Ballauff, M.

Colloid and Polymer Science, 287, pages: 129-138, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Survival of an evasive prey

Oshanin, G., Vasilyev, O., Krapivsky, P. L., Klafter, J.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(33):13696-13701, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Manipulating cylindrical polyelectrolyte brushes on the nanoscale by counterions: collapse transition to helical structures

Xu, Y., Bolisetty, S., Drechsler, M., Fang, B., Yuan, J., Harnau, L., Ballauff, M., Mueller, A. H. E.

Soft Matter, 5, pages: 379-384, 2009 (article)

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link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Confinement effects on diffusiophoretic self-propellers

Popescu, M. N., Dietrich, S., Oshanin, G.

Journal of Chemical Physics, 130(19), 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Line tension and the shape of nanodroplets

Schimmele, L., Dietrich, S.

European Physical Journal E, 30(4):427-430, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Critical Casimir interaction of ellipsoidal colloids with a planar wall

Kondrat, S., Harnau, L., Dietrich, S.

The Journal of Chemical Physics, 131, 2009 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]